These are the accepted workhops at the conference.
PDF for printing
1. Citizenship in an immigrant’s life course
The panel addresses the value and meaning of citizenship for immigrants from a life course perspective. By viewing citizenship acquisition as a life course event, departing from the sociological life course paradigm, the panel explores how the timing within the life course, the occurrence of past life course events, and the social and institutional context in which individuals are embedded, affect the decision to naturalise as well as the associated socio-economic and political outcomes of the legal status transition. The decision to naturalise can be seen as agency within context, as naturalisation decisions are shaped by the policies of host countries. This panel therefore also considers how naturalisation policy determines the structure of an immigrant’s life course. We welcome papers that analyse or reflect on one or more aspects of the life course paradigm when analysing naturalisation, the relationship between citizenship acquisition and integration outcomes, as well as citizenship policies.
Keywords: Citizenship, naturalization, life course
Organizers: Swantje Falcke and Floris Peters, Maastricht University, Anna Tegunimataka, Lund University.
3. Strategies of transnational families – choice, control and resilience
Family members and being together with the family are important for most people. However, family life can be enjoyed in many ways, also by living apart. People live apart for different reasons such as work, study or conflict. It is not always clear how much of a choice it is to live apart from the partner, children, grandparents or other close ones. It might be better economically to leave the family behind for long periods and send them money. However, this might have implications for example to children left behind. Immigration control and restrictions on family reunification might narrow the options for enjoying family life together in the host country. When the family is living apart against their own will due to strict immigration rules, families might turn to alternative and irregular ways for reunification. It thus seems that experiences around transnational family life differ a lot depending on the immigration status and the purpose of migration. Even when apart, families build different strategies to maintain family life, which impacts both the people who stay behind as well as the mobile ones. For example, social relations are maintained or even built through different communication media.
We welcome both empirical and theoretical studies on any discipline. This is a good chance to share and get to know different research done in the Nordic region on family migration and especially on the strategies that transnational families have developed to maintain family relations.
Keywords: Transnational Families, Family Solidarities, Immigration Policy, Migration Control
Organizers: Keiu Telve, University of Tartu, Jaana Palander, University of Tampere & University of Eastern Finland.
4. Innovative approaches to integration; cases from the cultural sector
The recent increase of migrants in the wake of the migrant crisis in the Mediterranean after 2015 spurred a wide variety of new activities by traditional voluntary associations, public institutions and new and diverse actors: New pop-up, low threshold activities and thoroughly planned and organised initiatives were developed. We believe that such innovative and creative integration initiatives are a source for new knowledge on how to live with differences and generate knowledge that can lead to the development of “just cities”. We see just cities and communities as spaces where people contribute to society with their unique resources and participate in making themselves and the communities thrive. There is a need for new knowledge and directions in practices of migrant integration, across public, civic and economic sectors, to prevent growth of parallel societies and exclusion, while securing socially, economically and environmentally sustainable cities for all inhabitants. The workshop invites discussion on how various communities can increase their capacity to deal with immigration and living with difference. This requires emphasis on how gender, age, educational level, and class interact with ethnicity. We welcome papers that explores new initiatives in integration within the cultural sector. What are the spaces for cross-cultural interaction and under what conditions do integration initiatives encourage cross-cultural interactions? Encounters may lead to tensions and we welcome studies that examine under which conditions positive integrative interaction may occur. How do interactions transfer into participation and development of cities? How, if at all, can such initiatives contribute to creating just cities and how to plan for integration in the context of changing voluntary organizations? Papers may focus on approaches, theoretical underpinnings, empirical findings, methodological issues, questions of co-production of knowledge and empowerment.
Keywords: Integration, Voluntary Organizations, Cultural Sector
Organizers: Marit Aure, Associate professor, UIT The Arctic University of Norway, Lasse Martin Koefoed, Associate Professor, Roskilde University, DK, Anniken Førde, Associate professor, UIT The Arctic University of Norway, Tone Magnusson, Nordland Research Institute.
5. Il/legal time: Exploring the temporalities of irregular migration
Acknowledging the need to further develop the understanding of migration as not only a spatial, but also a temporal phenomenon, this workshop focuses on the temporalities of irregular migration. Recently there have been significant advances towards more theoretically sound studies of the socio-legal production of migrant illegality, and some promising efforts to include a consideration of the temporal dimensions of such processes of illegalization. We encourage a critical engagement with this literature on migrant illegality, in combination with theories on the socio-legal production of time, the social and cultural organisation of time, the ethics of time and the experience of time, to push further perspectives on irregular migration as a spatiotemporal configuration. The gender dimension has been investigated in some recent studies, but the understanding of how the temporalities of irregular migration are gendered needs more systematic attention. In this workshop, we invite theoretical and ethnographic contributions that address gendered, legal, bureaucratic, ethical, affective, experiential and material dimensions of time and migration through topics such as: waiting and temporariness; uncertainty and suspension; urgency and emergency; future, hope and failure; a/synchronicity, a/chronology; rhythms, speed and tempo; belonging, reciprocity and hospitality; chronotopes, chronopolitanism and chrononormativity; liminality, limbo and stuckedness.
Keywords: Irregular Immigration, Time, Socio-legal studies, Temporality, Ethnography
Organizers: Kari Anne Drangsland, Christine M. Jacobsen and Marry-Anne Karlsen, SKOK, University of Bergen; Shahram Khosravi, Dep. of Social Anthropology, University of Stockholm.
6. Dimensions of school segregation
Over recent decades, Sweden and many other European countries have experienced a rapid inflow of immigrants accompanied by an increase in ethnic residential- and school segregation. Educational reforms, such as liberalization of school markets and changes in grading policies, as well as different settlement policies for newly arrived immigrants have led to an increase in ethnic school segregation of students in many European countries. Together, these processes have changed the demographic composition of the social spaces in which children spend most of their time during their most formative years. The processes through which schools become segregated are a complex weave of geo-spatial segregation, educational policies, parents’ school preferences, and subsequent school-choice decisions. The existence of tipping points with respect to the ethnic and socio-economic composition of schools create “white flight” behavior from more integrated schools, which in turn leads to an increase in the levels of ethnic segregation. Schools constitute the backbone of societies and are the core venue in which children interact. Hence, when children are segregated between schools on the basis of ethnicity, and mainly interact with children from the same background, this has been suggested to have consequences on areas ranging all the way from school results to children’s sense of solidarity. Furthermore, negative spillovers of ethnic school segregation can have traces in the life courses of individuals even after the schooling years, for example in the labor market and in marriage market. In this workshop, we hope to bring together quantitative and qualitative research on the dynamic processes through which schools become segregated and what consequences this in turn may have in terms of, for instance, school results, teachers’ quality, the work environment for students and teachers, and students’ friendship networks.
Keywords: School segregation, school choice, homophily, results, friendship networks, education policy
Organizers: Maria Brandén, PhD, and Selcan Mutgan, PhD cand., Institute for Analytical Sociology (IAS), LiU.
7. Embeddedness of mix – policy responses to immigrant entrepreneurship
Over the last three decades or so we have witnessed a surge of political, economic and sci-entific interest in small business in all OECD countries. The political expectations related to small businesses were not only to enhance the flexibility of the system by increasing differ-entiation, but also to help promote social welfare. The small business sector would accom-plish this by reducing unemployment and increasing growth and prosperity, thanks to the spirit of innovation thought to be inherent in small-scale entrepreneurship. Immigrant small business from the outset has been a key part in this discussion. Immigrants’ small businesses have been expected both to reduce unemployment among immigrants and to help integrate immigrants in majority society in general. The importance of the phenomenon – immigrant entrepreneurship – has also attracted the research community. The international research field dealing with immigrant entrepreneur-ship has been from the beginning of 1980s dominated by two competing perspectives, one focusing on cultural explanations, and another, focusing on external, structural factors af-fecting entrepreneurial activities among immigrants. Nevertheless, the concept that in re-cent years has become increasingly influential, and which has attempted to reconcile above mentioned two established traditions is "mixed embeddedness " (Kloosterman et al., 1999; Kloosterman and Rath, 2001; Kloosterman, 2010). Not denying the importance of social net-works and culture for immigrants’ social and economic integration, this concept has an am-bition to connect what is happening in these networks to the political, economic and social processes taking place at a broader structural level.
This workshop is going to focus on policies, rules and regulations framing the structures of opportunities for immigrant small business in during the last three decades. There are two important sets of question that may be addressed in this respect. The first is related to more general policy/regulatory issues. We welcome papers trying to provide answer to the ques-tion of how more general policies such as labour market policies, policies for regional growth, integration policies, and gender equality policies, shape more concrete policy initia-tives aimed at supporting immigrant self-employment.
The second set of questions is related to more concrete supporting policies oriented towards immigrant self-employment. We welcome papers aiming to provide answers to following questions: In what ways have policies shaped the preconditions in different market spaces over time? What are the most important aims and priorities of the supporting policies for immigrants’ small business? How are immigrant entrepreneurs and their needs defined? How are the differences between immigrant small businesses and main stream small busi-nesses viewed? We welcome both empirical (quantitative as well as quantitative) and theoretical papers.
Keywords: Immigrant entrepreneurship, migration policy, mixed embeddedness
Organizers: Zoran Slavnic, Associate Professor, REMESO, LiU and Tobias Schölin, PhD, Lund University.
8. Migration, permanent temporariness and immobility of undocumented migrants in Nordic and European societies
The recent migration crisis has been said to be the most significant after the Second World War. Many European countries hardened their entry regulations with regards progression of migration and border management. However, the influx of migrants has affected not only the countries of origin, but also those of destination. The impact in some of the countries will be permanent in the long term. This panel addresses the changing EU and national migration regimes and the processes of border crossing in terms of ongoing construction of migrant statuses in terms of permanent temporariness and/or immobility. It aims at discussing how various migrant statuses connected to racial and gender segmentation of the labour market create precarious living and working conditions for migrants, especially for undocumented immigrants and asylum seekers. Applications for asylum often take many years to process and during waiting period undocumented migrants and asylum seekers live in uncertainty in the Nordic region and in many other European societies. They have no access to welfare benefits and therefore some of them are forced to engage in precarious labour arrangements to make a living. To find such jobs is not only difficult, but it often exposes them to various forms of abuse and exploitation. At the same time, they have to cope with the severity of the migration regime that makes it impossible for them to insert themselves into the host societies during the long waiting period. Recent changes in the Swedish asylum policy towards temporary residence permits create uncertainties even for those migrants whose asylum application has been granted. This continued temporariness keeps them outside the host societies. In addition to the challenges of the procedures that create this uncertainty in any given European country, the austerity of the EU changing entry regulations create challenges to mobility.
Therefore, for this panel, we invite papers that analyze: the rules and regulations of the migration regimes, and how they shape the phenomenon of migration; the direction of the flows, their frequency and duration of the processes; creation of various categories of migrants; the forms and impact of immobility and permanent temporariness on migrants and receiving societies, including gender and racial segmentation of labour markets.
Keywords: EU and Nordic countries’ migration regimes, permanent temporariness, immobility, undocumented migrants, labour market segmentation
Organizers: Associate Professors Anne Kubai, Uppsala University and Branka Likic-Brboric, REMESO, Linköping University.
9. Artistic representations as resistance: migration, fences and media.
During the last decade one can identify a growth of different artistic strategies with which artists have addressed the current migration regimes and austere border politics of Europe and elsewhere and the deaths and dire conditions for refugees in this regime. Beside the difficulty of understanding, addressing and/or exposing the migratory system of fences and surveillance, and the experience of this, from inside receiveing countries as well as “from” a migrants perspective, there is also the challenge for artistic expressions and articulations facing the competition of images and narratives in media, i.e. the stereotypical imagery of “the refugee”, and the propaganda from an increasingly xenophobic political establishment, as well as growing fascist movements. Elements in the public sphere that inthemselves have become objects for artistic reflection and work. A starting point for this workshop is both a conviction that artistic expression is badly needed in order to promote change by way of alternative perspectives to what is going on, to counter dominant discourses and standardized political rethoric, and, for a recognition of the many challenges art face in addressing the migration issue.
The aim of the workshop is to bring to the fore politically as well as aesthetically relevant means of addressing current migration in the arts, and to discuss and explore the nexus of art and migration through a set of sub questions:
What can contemporary art bring to the discussion of migration in society today? Can it counter fascism, racism and the exclusionary politics installed in the EU as well as in many countries around the globe?
What strategies to bridge the excacerbated distance between the parties involved in art on refugees can be imagined, have been put into practice? I.e. between the established art institutions, the artists, the refugees themselves and audiences;
Does the migration issue itself pose a challenge to the traditional “division of labour” of political art?
Does the sometimes exclusive gallery or museum become a more, or less, relevant site for political assertions, in a society which itself is engaged in exclusionary practices?
We welcome papers and presentations from researchers, curators and artists.
Keywords: Art, migration, representation, political art, change
Organizers: Erik Berggren, Research Coordinator and Stefan Jonsson, Professor, REMESO, Linköping University.
10. Civic responses to the ‘refugee crisis’
During the latter half of 2015, the number of people who crossed the Mediterranean Sea was more than 1 million people, compared to 216,000 in 2014. Such mobilities have resulted in EU Member States discussions on ‘burden-sharing’, ‘responsibility-sharing’, and integration policies and strategies. From below various local initiatives, actions and activism have been organized by civil society in the receiving societies. By and large, the grand narrative of the refugee crisis entails various humanitarian and legal aspects that often frames refugees as being either deserving/undeserving or entitled/unentitled, but also silences other groups of migrants who do not fall into the category of the asylum-seeker. The reception of both migrants and refugees in the destination states effects civic societies broadly and inflicts challenges of various kind in different areas of society such as housing, the labour market and the educational system. The narrative of the ‘refugee crisis’ has had effects going beyond those addressing refugees only. For instance, can we identify policy interventions which affect other groups than refugees but which are legitimized through the narrative of the ‘refugee crisis’ and a sense of emergency. The workshop seeks to engage with the responses and actions which are developed in civil society. These include a broad range of actors from below and above and can be responses not only to the alleged crisis but also responses problematizing and questioning the crisis narrative itself. Likewise, we welcome papers that include responses from actors feeling excluded from the crisis narrative, e.g. other forms of (im)mobilities effected by the interventions targeting the ‘refugee crisis’
Thus, this workshop welcomes papers that critically analyze civic responses to the narrative of the ‘refugee crisis’ in different nation states and areas of society. For instances, paper proposals could depart from the following topics:
New forms of civic engagement and politics
- Local policy responses to global challenges
- Reactions against refugee inflows
- Policy innovation to the incorporation of refugees and migrants e.g. in the labour marketand the education system
- Constitution of new hierarchies of social stratification following the ‘refugee crisis’
- Criminalisation and discrimination of the migrants through migration policies
- The criminalization of solidarity and state responses to civic activism
Keywords: civic engagement, local policies, policy innovation, criminalization
Organizers: Martin Bak Jørgensen and Trine Lund Thomsen, Centre for the Studies on Migration and Diversity – CoMID, Aalborg University.
11. Unaccompanied minor refugees – vulnerability and survival
This workshop will discuss subjects related to unaccompanied minors seeking asylum in the Nordic countries. The number of unaccompanied minors has increased substantially during the last years, and both the asylum system, child welfare and service systems in the municipalities are under pressure coping with the large numbers. Unaccompanied minors are often described as both independent and vulnerable. They have lost parts of their childhood because of war, prosecution and flight. Many of them are in a risk group because of traumatic experiences - either in their countries of origin, during flight or in exile. These factors also constitute risk factors when it comes to potential for integration. At the same time children with a refugee background are survivors. This duality between vulnerability and survival constitutes an important area of discussion for politicians and NGOs, but also for academics. Integration and inclusion are key concepts for the Nordic countries policy on ethnicity and diversity. Language training and focus on education has for a long time been important target areas. Our ambition with this workshop is to provide a holistic view on childhood and migration. Also papers that highlight all forms of combating discrimination and improving life chances and living conditions will be appreciated. These measures may include actions such as changed legislation, public practices as well as attitudes towards immigrants and ethnic minorities.
Keywords: Unaccompained minor children, Nordic countries, Integration policies
Organizers: Berit Berg, Professor and Head of Research, and Stina Svendsen, Researcher, NTNU Social Research.
12. Everyday strategies of citizenship and belonging
Mobilities paradigm (Urry, Creswell, Ady, Sheller) has been instrumental in shifting the gaze of migration studies away from its ‘sedentary bias’ (Creswell). This paradigm has expanded its lens to include the immobility of subjects whose movement is restricted by barriers such as bordering, residence permits and naturalisation. However, these political efforts in institutionalising belonging which are designed to control (im)mobilities, are far from the everyday practices of belonging. Migrants’ belonging strategies are intersectional and challenge the sedentary position of the citizens in terms class, race, religion, nationality, gender, etc. As all these social locations gain novel meanings after migration, it is necessary to understand their changes and meanings. This panel seeks paper contributions that will take into account the everyday strategies of integration and citizenship by addressing the different/multiple forms of belongings and homing practices migrants employ to negotiate their positions as ‘new members’ of a society. These practices can include but are not limited to finding ways to become naturalised as new citizens. The papers will look at these shifting processes of identity formation through mobility and how these reflect on the everyday practices such as homemaking, marriage, education, work environments, etc. This shifting paradigm from (im)mobilities to everyday practices is particularly important in how migrants represent other migrants in terms of exclusions and hierarchies within migrant groups.
Keywords: Migrants' belonging strategies, shifting processes of identify formation
Organizers: Mastoureh Fathi, Royal Holloway University of London and Pooya Ghoddousi, University College London.
13. Migration, gender/sexuality and health
This workshop welcomes papers that interrogate the intersections of migration and health. Health matters have increasingly gained attention in global migration policy and is equally a growing research field in social studies on migration and ethnicity. Of interest is how health matters plays out in different phases of migration, including pre-departure, destination, travel, as well as possible interception and return phases. Of equal importance are migrants’ legal status, as it affects vulnerability as well as health risks, as do differences between different groups of migrants.
In this workshop, we particularly address issues related to gender and sexuality in the context of migration and health. Papers could for instance query public health policy regarding sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), health education focusing on migrant women and men, or gendered experiences of health care among different groups of migrants. Other possible topics are migration and sex work, and women’s health and forced migration. Papers could also deal with more theoretical problems, discussing, for instance, (bio)medicalisation and humanitarian interventions or how to further develop intersectional frameworks in social medicine, medical anthropology or medical ethics.
Keywords: Migration, gender, sexuality, health, medicine
Organizers: Anna Bredström, REMESO, Linköping University, Eva Bolander, Pedagogical work, Linköping University.
14. Balibar and borders: revisiting ”Race, Nation, Class” in the era of authoritarianism
This workshop will take its point of departure in the ideas put forward by Etienne Balibar and Immanuel Wallerstein in their path-breaking collection of essay of 1991: Race, Nation, Class: Ambiguous Identities. In their classical book, Balibar and Wallerstein codified numerous ways of rethinking the intersection of nationalism, racism, culture, and class identities, by relating them to transformations in the global economy as well as to postmarxist discourses on identity and the return of race and racism to the political agenda. In subsequent works, Etienne Balibar then went on toward an immensely rich and influential theorization of the role of borders in the contemporary world, and toward a normative reconceptualization of citizenship. The workshop will discuss the relevance of Balibar’s theory of identity, borders and citizenship in the new era of authoritarianism. We welcome papers and interventions that seek to relate Balibar’s writings on these and related topics to the current conjuncture. We do not mainly seek papers that empirically apply or employ Balibar’s conceptual framework. Rather, we would like to conduct a discussion that engages theoretically and politically with the notions and models offered by Balibar’s (and Wallerstein’s) interventions, and especially papers that seek to assess their importance for studies of migration and ethnicity today. Relevant issues and areas to address may concern what Balibar called neo-racism, the idea of the multiplication of borders, and the normative discussion about transnational or European citizenship founded on the universal values of egaliberté.
Keywords: borders, citizenship, racism, cultural identities, Europe, Balibar
Organizers: Karl Dahlquist, York University, Canada and Stefan Jonsson, Linköping University.
15. Authoritarian challenges to liberal democracy: political practice, rhetoric and history
In the EU and Europe at large as well as in the United States since long taken-for-granted truths about the sustainability of democracy and its core values have in recent years been fundamentally challenged, through the electoral wins of populist politics appealing to unexpectedly large portions of the electorate. The struggle between democracy and authoritarianism unfolds on all levels of political and social contestation, from the global arena to very hands-on local and everyday activities. The governments in Hungary and Poland, together with like-minded forces in other countries, represent a divergent view of what constitutes the core values of the EU. Authoritarian forces in Russia, Turkey and along the spectrum of right-wing populist movements all over Europe, as well as those visible in the Trump phenomenon in the United States, make up seemingly formidable challenges to liberal democracy. The pushing of simple solutions to complex problems is gaining widespread support in public opinion in Europe and elsewhere. The knee-jerk depiction of migrants as threats to national security, terrorists and general burdens on national resources and values is happening all over the world. Ideals of ethnic identity, national purity and racial supremacy once again seem to rise to the top of domestic political agendas. In the political rhetoric, those who are not explicitly in favor of the suggested policies are depicted as enemies of their nations. However, democracy has been under pressure many times before in history, so is what takes place now a sign of a fundamental crisis of democracy, or is it perhaps rather symptoms of a time when democracy starts to rejuvenate itself in the face of the challenges being posed? The workshop is open to papers addressing political developments in individual countries or address events and processes from a more general point of view. It welcomes contributions from all over the spectrum of the social sciences and the humanities. Papers analyzing political discourses and rhetoric are particularly welcome, as are contributions providing a historical depth. The organizers strive to find a mix between scholars in the early stages of their careers as well as more established representatives of their disciplines.
Keywords: Authoritarianism, Democracy, Liberalism, populism, migration
Organizers: Professor Bo Petersson, Malmö University and Associate Professor Daniel Silander, Linnaeus University.
16. Migration, Racialization and the Politics of Intimacy in the Nordic Countries
The processes of migration are inseparable from the intimate domains of everyday life, as they stir people’s friendships, romantic relationships and family relations. Hence, the ‘intimate’ is not only ‘private’ but also ‘political’ as it is intertwined with social organization, practices of inclusion and exclusion, and not least, processes of racialization. In practice, we can see this when governing bodies on local and national levels launch initiatives attempting to manage social relations and family life, spanning from so-called mixed friendship projects to new family reunification policies. Simultaneously, bonds of friendship and love are formed and dismantled in ’unruly’ ways both in real life and in virtual spheres. Against this background, we invite scholars to explore both ‘managed’ and ‘unruly’ aspects of intimate life in relation to migration, integration and belonging. The questions of interest include but are not limited to: How do social relations and intimate domains such as friendship, love, sexuality and ‘kinship’ become objects of regulation when questions of migration, belongingness and racialization are at stake? How are these intimate domains dealt with and experienced in and through various spaces and places, and how, if at all, do initiatives, discourses and shared experiences pave the way for solidarity and equality, or work to reproduce racialized structures of inequality?
Keywords: Politics of Intimacy, Migration, Racialization, Social Relations
Organizers: Camilla Haavisto, Assistant Professor, Åbo Akademi University, and Mante Vertelyte, Ph.D fellow, Aalborg University.
17. Border Policing in and through the Social Service Sector: Perspectives from the Nordic Welfare States
In this workshop, we are interested in analysing the nexus of border policing and social service provision in the Nordic welfare states. In recent years, social service providers, both public and private, have become targets for, and sometimes active participants in, attempts to monitor and police asylum-seekers and other migrants. Examples range from the decision of the Swedish Border Police to raid a summer camp for irregular migrant families organised by the Church, via requirements placed on municipal social services to provide the Border Police with the home addresses of irregular migrants, to the active collaboration between the migration authorities and certain NGOs to motivate migrant street children to ‘voluntarily’ return to their countries of origin. We hope that the workshop will add to, and enrich research from within the fields of critical geography, migration-, welfare- and social work studies on incremental and everyday forms of migration management, including work on the relationship between humanitarian care and control (Fassin, 2012). Scholarship on the internalisation of immigration enforcement and the constitution of ‘polymorphic borders’ (Burridge et al., 2017), for example, serves as an inspiration as it describe how state power is reconfigured and respatialised to effect indirect and surreptitious but often intended – forms of control. More could be done, however, to highlight the specific, complex and often contradictory roles of social service provides in the context of such forms of policing. Indeed, we would suggest that border policing in and through the social service sector constitutes a mode of policing that needs to be considered in its own right. Furthermore, we hope that the focus on the Nordic countries will help foster debate on local policies and practices.
We invite scholars as well as those engaged in related research and activism to submit abstracts. Potential themes may involve, but need not be limited to the following:
Mapping the complex relationship(s) between border policing and social service provision; Exploring the underlying – and conflicting – rationalities in the policing of migrants in and through social services; Understanding the, potential or real, short and long term effects for variously categorized residents in the Nordic countries and beyond (irregular/ regular migrants, non-citizens/ citizens) and their access to social rights; Contextualising and historicising current developments in relation to a longer history of exclusionary and disciplinary social service provision.
Keywords: Border control, welfare, social services, labour regimes, policing, immigration
Organizers: Maria Persdotter & Jacob Lind. Malmö University.
18. Refiguring Hate-Speech, Race and Migration through the Locus of Agency
Migration studies often revolve around human suffering and precariousness, sometimes even years after resettling into new communities. In Nordic migration studies, scholars are now faced with dismantling racisms, austerity policies, draconian surveillance, nation-state control technologies, and neo-liberal exploitation, while refiguring theorizations and new starting points for the analysis of anti-migrant practices and responses to them. Most would agree that concepts such as governmentality, intersectionality, affect theory, and discourse analysis are indispensable critical tools to analyse for the subjectification of personhood. Yet, reducing subjectivity and identity formation to disciplining, discursive system of power may reduce the complex reactions against which people attempt to affect their own histories. In media anthropology, Sahana Udupa and Matti Pohjonen have recently argued for a turn to practice in order to avoid predetermining the effects of online vitriol anti-migration speech as vilifying, polarizing, or lethal. Rather than ‘hate speech’, they find that extreme speech (or extremism) is a better and broader concept, since it emphasizes practice, that is, ‘doing’ media. Dorothy Holland and her collaborators have taken the theorization further and advocated for a point of departure that emphasizes social practice, in a critical extension of Bourdieu’s practice theory approach and that starts from specific, situated situations, representations, events, persons, moving away from the proverbial view from “nowhere in particular.” In this way, the reasonings, emotions and dilemmas of engaged, situated actors are in focus in this panel. Social practice theory focuses on what goes in and through the actor’s engagement in practice yet is constrained by experience and discourse. We invite papers that incorporate social practices, lived experiences, and person-oriented approaches without losing sight of the larger contexts, prevailing hegemonies, and dominant discursive formations. This could include how persons’ experiences recreate, improvise, negotiate, and navigate within complex webs of relations and institutions. The person(s) of interest to this panel are not only (non-European) migrants, but also the researcher, street-level bureaucrats, security workers, reporters, opinion piece writers or bloggers. We welcome papers that deal with experiences of – and resistances against – Eurocentrism and hate speech within Europe and in different anti-colonial, de-colonizing, and post-colonial settings outside of Europe.
Keywords: Agency, social practice, person-centric, media coverage, racialization
Organizers: Peter Hervik and Carolina Sanchez Boe, University of Aalborg.
19. Representations of immobilities: Access, media, and the nation-state in the maintenance of inequality
While immobility is an increasingly important term for addressing the material and visceral ways in which the modern refugee or migrant gets disciplined or controlled, immobilization also tends to result in lessened, or entirely absent, access to mediated modes of self-identification and representation. This workshop aims to examine how the exclusionary, but naturalized, racialization inherent to processes of immobility impacts media content, production, consumption, and circulation. We posit that the concept of immobility must be seen as also impacting how we theorize access to media and knowledge, access to understanding, and not least access to meaning-making and self-identifcation vis-à-vis mediated representations of those who are made immobile. What role does media play in allowing those who are made immobile to themselves represent immobility? Does media operate in ways that make immobility more or less legible to the majority population? And how do these processes connected to immobility play out in ostensibly mass-oriented media genres such as popular culture? May, for instance, framings and representations in film and media co-construct and potentially re-distribute immobile fixations of otherness and racialization? In this workshop we invite papers from the intersections of race and racialization, media studies, and nation-state maintenance and construction. In particular, we invite papers that examine how representations in film and media rely on nation-state logics to overtly and covertly categorize people along lines of ethnicity, gender and class, and how this may enable and reproduce a racialized fixation on national identity and belonging. Paper themes might include, but are not limited to, news media representations of refugees and migrants vis-à-vis the nation-state, or issues of racialization and otherness in popular cultural representations of mobility that intersect directly or indirectly with issues of nation.
Keywords: Media, representations, migrants, inequality, stereotypes
Organizers: Ph D Cand. Tess S. S. Thorsen, Aalborg University and Ph.d. student Morten Stinus Kristensen, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.
20. The Paradoxes of Whiteness, Anti/racism and Migration
The importance of migration policies in antiracist movements cannot be underestimated. Yet, the idea of majority population struggling ‘for’ new minorities is complex and full of paradoxes, concerning issues of race, belonging and borders. This workshop interrogates the conceptual boundaries of the migrant as a non-privileged, non-Western, non-white subject in need of a better future, as a contrast to the (white) majority as a homogenous collective, further excluding indigenous and minority populations. It raises issues such as: How are questions of hospitality and belonging defined and practiced through these discursive boundaries? How can we find new political collectives and interconnections that moves beyond isolated categories? Is white antiracism possible in a globalized, postcolonial world? By integrating both the majority and the minority into studies of migration, we hope that this workshop will challenge conceptual boundaries of the migrant, by placing race and whiteness at the centre of processes and politics of migration. We believe that the deconstruction of conceptual boundaries of migration raises arrays of methodological, analytical and theoretical issues in relation to the urgent questions of increasing racism and struggles of antiracism.
The workshop calls for methodological, theoretical and empirical contributions that explore these issues in multiple ways. Questions that can be dealt with in this workshop are:
Meanings of race and whiteness as analytical concepts in Migration Studies; Practices of antiracism in a postcolonial world; Understanding whiteness and anti/racism; Including the invisible majority into studies of migration.
Keywords: Migration, Race, Whiteness, Antiracism
Organizers: Lisa Karlsson Blom, PhD Student and Catrin Lundström, Associate Professor, REMESO, Linköping University.
21. The Affective Biopolitics of Migration
It has been argued that the governing of migrating bodies increasingly takes place through affective forms of biopolitics (Foucault 2003), be it the politicization of the affective ties of belonging (Yuval- Davis 2011) or the shaping of border politics in the name of love (Ahmed 2004, Puar 2007). In a Nordic context, an emerging body of research examines how migration is governed through love and intimacy (see e.g. Bissenbakker & Myong 2016; D’Aoust 2013; Fair 2010; Myong & Trige Andersen 2015; Myrdahl 2010; Mühleisen et al. 2012; Stubberud 2016). Such studies highlight how affective biopolitical regulation on macro- and micro level is informed by gendered, racialized, and sexualized norms that lead to inclusion and exclusion of specific forms of intimate migration. From the starting point of these perspectives, the workshop on The Affective Biopolitics of Migration aims at investigating new conceptualizations and discursive frameworks to qualify our under- standings of how and to what effect different forms of migration are conceptually and politically governed through affect. Thus, the workshop explores the intersection between migration, emotion and biopolitics through an affect-theoretical, queer-feminist lens. Our aim is to invite an analytical intervention and transdisciplinary foray into the study of the affective aspects of biopolitical migration regulation. Through the foregrounding of affect – empirically as well as theoretically – the workshop hopes to scrutinize how emotion functions as a migration political switch point between the biopolitical and the psychic, the collective and the individual.
We especially wish to invite presentations that focus on:
-The affective biopolitical governance of migration in relation to gender, sexuality and the precarious body.
-The bio/necro-political management of family reunification, transnational adoption, surrogacy, and LGBTI migration.
-Affective constructions of the family, the nation and the citizen.
-Symbolic representations and imaginings of migrant bodies and biopolitical ‘others’ in mass media and popular culture as well as in counter cultural artistic imagining.
Keywords: affect, bio/necro-politics, gender, sexuality, kinship
Organizers: Loving Attachment: Regulating Danish Love Migration (LOVA). Mons Bissenbakker, associate professor, PhD, University of Copenhagen, Lene Myong, professor, University of Stavanger, Asta Smedegaard Nielsen, postdoctoral researcher, Aalborg University, Sofie Jeholm, PhD student, University of Copenhagen.
22. Queering Borders: Im/Mobilities, Non/Belonging and Il/Legality
In recent decades, queer migration scholarship, which critically engages with static, dualistic and (hetero- and homo-) normative configurations of borders, bodies, diasporas and im/mobilities, has made significant contributions to different bodies of research including queer, feminist, materialist, post and de-colonial theorization (Brown 2006, Puar 2007, Cantú 2009, Haritaworn, Kuntsman et al. 2014), globalization, trans-nationalization, migration, refugee and diaspora, and citizenship studies (Chavez 2013, Luibhéid 2002, 2013, Epps, Valens et al. 2005, Manalansan 2006, Lee and Brotman 2011, Patton and Sanchez-Eppler 2002, Spijkerboer 2013, Murray 2015, Giametta 2017, Ahlstedt 2016, Akin 2017).
Drawing on this body of research, in the workshop we would like to examine the diverse intersections between sexuality and migration as they appear in shifting (trans-)national contexts, in an increasingly neo-liberal and fenced world, and amid the political unruliness surrounding migrants. Focusing on the concepts of belonging, mobility, and legality, we would like build on the thought that sexual and gender regimes, politics, identities and subjectivities shape and become reshaped by migratory and diasporic processes, practices, spaces, subjects, histories, cultures and politics. Therefore, we would like to invite scholars, scholar-activists, and activists who engage with theoretical, methodological and empirical questions related, but not limited, to: Histories of queer migrations; Queer migrant lives, experiences, resistance and cultures; Queer asylum; Queer diasporas; Transnational politics at the intersection of sexual and citizenship regimes; Migrant sex workers; Migration regimes and motherhood/parenting/reproduction; Queer migration and political labor/activism (complicities/casualties and alliances/possibilities); Transnational politics and experiences of marriage, partner and intimate migrations.
Keywords: queer migrations, queer asylum, queer diaspora
Organizers: Deniz Akin, Department of Interdisciplinary Studies of Culture, NTNU and Eda Farsakoglu, Department of Sociology/Center for Middle Eastern Studies, Lund University.
23. Transnational memory politics in the era of austerity and mobility
This workshop concentrates on the formation of collective memories in the era of economic austerity in transnational world, affected by mobilities and immobilities. Multicultural and complex societies of present day Nordic countries experience internal struggles over collective memories, which can follow sovereign (competing) or transnational memory models and ideologies (see Rothberg 2009, Assmann 2016). The cultural consequences of politics of austerity promote hierarchy and exclusion, and support the patriotic and patronymic narratives of national communities (Johnson & Willén 2017). ‘Austere memories’ contradict ‘transnational memories’, which are built upon values of human rights and pluralistic citizenship. The understanding of such complexity raises the question as to what kind of memory politics hold potential for enhancing mutual understanding, participation and peace within, across and between societies. The aim of the workshop is to develop understandings of transnational and multidirectional memory in the context of austere economic policies and “nationalizing” memory politics in the sites of actual encounters between different groups and their memories. The transnationally oriented research on memory on one hand reveals the profoundly transcultural character of memory processes (Erll 2014), but on the other hand it brings forth the multiple borders that are created by memories (Zhurzhenko 2011, Paasi 2015). Collective memory can therefore be seen as an arena of endless bordering between and within fundamentally transnational societies. We welcome papers dealing with intersections of memory politics, migrations, ideologies of nationalism, neoliberal politics in practice and changes in contemporary politics of mobility and immobility.
Keywords:Transnational memory politics, austere memories, mutual understanding, multiple borders, collective memory
Organizers: Olga Davydova-Minguet, assistant professor, Ismo Björn, adjunct professor and Pirjo Pöllänen, researcher, University of Eastern Finland.
24. Narratives about migration, migrants and nation(s) from contemporary and historical perspectives
Individuals and collective groups with experiences of migration, as well as children and grandchildren to previous migrants, are often primarily restricted to positions as ‘Migrants’ or ‘the others’ in the narratives from different individual and collective actors and institutions in the receiving majority societies. Migrants’ multiple identities and positions in relation to class, gender, ethnicity, sexuality and locality and so on are frequently overlooked in normative nationalized and racialized narratives. Instead a homogenizing perspective contribute to a discursive and symbolic treatment of people with a migrant background as first and foremost representing a Migrant position, which regularly means being positioned categorized in a position as an outsider in relation to insiders in the majority society. In such normative narratives, migration and migrants are often representing something that deviates from the nation and/or national order of things, understood as homogenous, controlled and stabile. This workshop invites papers and presentations exploring narratives about migration, migrants and nation(s) from a contemporary and/or historical perspective. The papers could have a methodological, theoretical and/or empirical focus. For instance, papers could explore which meaning and impact different nationalized, as well as trans-nationalized, narratives about migration and migrants on the one hand have for the national self-image of one specific country or for several countries’ self-images. How does different narratives about migration and migrants affect discourses as well as material paths to integration and citizenship in receiving countries and societies? On the other hand, papers could explore which meaning and impact different nationalized or trans-nationalized narratives about migration and migrants have for the self-image and identity of individuals and/or collective groups with migrant experiences or backgrounds. What different strategies could be identified regarding how individuals and/or collective groups with migrant experiences and backgrounds position and negotiate themselves in relation to diverse, for example political, economic, material and judicial, narratives about migration and migrants in relation to paths to integration and citizenship in receiving society.
Keywords: Narratives, migration, multiple identities, nationalized/racialized, integration, citizenship
Organizers: Organizers: Jesper Johansson, Senior lecturer in social work, Linnaeus University and Malin Thor Tureby, Associate Professor in history, Linköping University.
25. Ageing and dying in the country of destination
The numbers of immigrants entering old age, getting serious ill and dying are increasing throughout north-west Europe. The increase is partly due to the fact that individuals, who were young adults in the labour immigration phase around 1970, have now become pensioners, and partly due to the increased share of immigrants in the population. With old age and illness new issues arise for the individuals, for their families, and for the states in which they live. Failing health may put an end to some retirees’ pendular migration between country of origin and destination (where long summer holidays in the country of birth are commonplace). Others may experience illness and ageing as a final end to plans and dreams of ’returning home’. Failing health may thus introduce a new sense of immobility in individual lives. Health problems and care needs may also challenge spouses and adult children, with ensuing negotiations of how the needs of older family members should be met. Hence, care needs may bring to a head conflicting understandings of intergenerational responsibilities, care, and relatedness providing a fertile ground for empirical fieldwork. Finally more immigrants ageing and dying in their countries of destination challenge welfare services meant to be universal and provide equity. A central issue concerns the duty of the family versus the duty of the welfare state. It is well documented that older ethnic minorities have a limited use of nursing homes. The low uptake of such services raises questions of how older immigrants’ care needs are met instead, including the consequences for e.g. daughters or daughters-in-law if they are expected to shoulder such care needs in a context where women, too, are in the labour market. Other questions concerns processes of illness and the last phase of life, and how both individuals/families and employees at e.g. hospitals meet these challenges. In this workshop we want to encourage different perspectives on the last part of life of – and the death of – older immigrants. We want to highlight power relations and how both private and professional logics are activated when patient/family and professionals meet. Hence we encourage studies which look at both individual older immigrants, at their families, and at the relevant state and community service providers.
Keywords: Immigrants ageing and dying, welfare services, family, women, power relations, private and professional logics
Organizers: Beret Bråten, post doc at Akershus University Hospital and Anika Liversage, senior researcher at VIVE – the Danish Center of Applied Social Science.
26. Organising labour market integration of immigrants
While it was previously mainly the responsibility of the state, the labour market integration of immigrants today involves a myriad of actors: municipalities and regional bodies, companies, interest groups, but also community-embedded, civil society organisations as well as individuals, who all design and implement individual and collaborative integration initiatives. This widening of initiatives reflects the transition from traditional ways of governing to more collaborative and interactive forms of governance. Contemporary integration initiatives may include procedures for validating prior foreign learning, education and training programmes, on-the-job training and internships, mentorship programmes, cultural sensitivity training, community-embedded economic initiatives, social entrepreneurship, procedures for allocating apartments, construction projects in specific neighbourhoods, activities aimed at creating spaces for immigrant groups and other vulnerable groups to meet, development of technological tools and applications and community development activities. These are complemented by the efforts made by various ethnic communities that try to provide the same but through different transnational networks. However, the taken-for-granted ideologies, hidden power relations, and actual practices connected to these initiatives undertaken in “the age of migration” remain underscrutinised. Similarly, while the importance of locality, space and territory has been shown to be critical in understanding the issue of socio-economic integration of migrants, the literature that joins the issues of contemporary migration with urban studies is still scarce. Clearly, more attention should be paid to how the labour market integration of refugees and other immigrants is actually organised within the specific context of cities and other localities.
Focusing on both top-down and bottom-up initiatives, we call for papers addressing questions related to labour market integration of immigrants in practice:
- What ideas of integration give rise to and are promoted by the contemporary integration initiatives?
- How is the labour market integration of refugees and other immigrants organised in practice? What organisations, groups and individuals are being enrolled in integration activities, and how do they react to them? What do they do?
- What are the effects of these integration initiatives - in terms of diversity, gender and power relations?
- How does labour integration initiatives relate to issues of space, territory and cities?
We are particularly interested in examining novel initiatives driven by the public sector, the private sector, and the civil society; as well as the complications and opportunities of connecting these activities across sites.
Keywords: labour market integration, governance, taken-for-granted ideologies, power, practices, ideas of integration
Organizers: Ester Barinaga, Professor, Copenhagen Business School and Andreas Diedrich, Associate Professor, Patrik Zapata, Professor, María José Zapata Campos, Associate Professor, University of Gothenburg.
27. Civil society and border un/making practices in today’s ‘age of migration’
All borders are performative; they are human constructions. Borders are enacted, materialized, and performed in a variety of ways. The analysis concentrates on the performative aspects of borders by state and civil society actors. So while we most often talk about state bordering practices: those activities engaged in by states that constitute, sustain or modify borders between states — their performances of sovereignty, and we acknowledge that the role of states is central in the study of migration processes, in this workshop we wish to highlight the roles that civil society actors play in performing/constructing borders. State bordering practices are to a large degree performed in interaction with civil society actors and we are interested in how the inter-weaving and unfolding of state and civil society action evolves over given time periods. Borders understood as sites of cultural encounters are diffused, differentiated and dispersed throughout society, for example, at railway stations and airports, on motorways and city streets, at shopping malls and healthcare centers. In short, borders are not only provisional, but also multiplying precisely through their conditional nature and the shift in resources and enforcement practices more and more to interior locales. Furthermore, these borders are only for some provisional and penetrable, while for others they are impermeable and more or less insurmountable. Borders are perceived differently according to the economic, ethnic and legal status of the border-crossers. Borders continue to symbolize the boundaries of nation, and are imagined in relation to dominant narratives of nation and race. For some, border encounters are banal and relatively benign, even going unnoticed. For others, border encounters are a critical life event in which the ‘border moment’ is etched into biography, stretching it away, both spatially and temporally, from its materialization in specific times and places. Some civil society actors are increasingly active in envisioning, constructing, shifting, and/or even erasing borders—performances of border solidarities; other civil society actors are engaged in erecting new borders and/or policing and enforcing borders. We encourage the submission of papers that either address the role of civil society in the democratization of borders — the involvement of citizens in determining processes of bordering and de- bordering. Or papers that address the seizure of the means of bordering by non-state actors who seek to impose borders to further their self-interest or ideologies of hatred. We find both trends in today’s ‘age of migration’.
Keywords: Civil society, border , performing/constructing borders. border solidarities, policing, democratization
Organizers: Prof. Abby Peterson, University of Gothenburg, Prof. Martina Feilzer and Dr. Robin Mann, Bangor University.
28. Transnational whiteness and intersectional spaces of (im)mobility
Whiteness is intimately connected to the politics of mobility, its restrictions and possibilities. Global extensions of whiteness are further related to transnational power relations, institutionalisation of privilege and constructions of difference. In this workshop we explore various aspects of transnational whiteness in relation to intersectional spaces of (im)mobility. We focus on processes of whiteness and racialization in the global arena, through presentations of research of various transnational issues, such as transnational migration, transnational tourism, transnational families, transnational adoption, transnational surrogacy, etc. We especially want to discuss in what ways transnational whiteness is inter-tangled with intersecting hierarchies of gender, sexuality, age, functionality, class, race, ethnicity, nationality and so forth. In what ways are transnational whiteness embedded in geographies of (im)mobility, inequalities and privileges? How can such intersectional spaces of (im)mobility be analyzed in terms of agency and subjectivity? What kind of cultural representations and imaginations circulates in and structures these intersectional spaces of (im)mobility? We welcome any critical analyses on transnational whiteness, intersectionality, and spatial regimes of (im)mobility. The papers may be both theoretically and empirically oriented.
Keywords: Whiteness, intersectional spaces, transnational power relations, privilege, difference, (im)mobility,
Organizers: Katarina Mattsson, Associate Professor, Södertörn University, Johanna Gondouin, Assistant Professor, Stockholm University, Catrin Lundström, Associate Professor, REMESO, Linköping University.
29. Dialectics of mobility and immobility
In the current globalised and interconnected world, mobility tends to be normalized and aspired. The modernist ideology typically associates mobility with progress, while the neoliberal discourse ascribes it with positive values, with flexibility and velocity, promoting mobility as desired ideal. Mobility at the same time differentiates and reproduces (global) inequalities, racialization and discriminations. Importantly, mobility often entails or may result in various forms of immobility and boundary making, while immobile situations may contain mobile moments. For instance, refugees, who are frequently considered highly mobile subjects often need to negotiate between movement and lack of mobility; highly skilled migrants experience constrains on spatial or social mobility, while
museums which are usually perceived as static representation of past into infinite future can become sides of transnational flows. In this workshop we would like take up critical approach to complex, ambiguous and frequently unobvious interplays between mobility and immobility as well as problematic division between free and forced mobility. We welcome papers that demonstrate and discuss divers transpositions between mobility and immobility as well as papers that analyse how individuals mediate and mobilise different mobile or immobile positions.
Keywords: mobility/immobility, modernist ideology, neoliberal discourse, desired ideal, highly skilled migrants, flexibility
Organizers: Suvi Keskinen, University of Turku, Unnur Dís Skaptadóttir, University of Iceland.
30. ‘Helping hands’ in a rebordering Europe
In 2015 Europe experienced an almost unprecedented refugee crisis as a consequence of people fleeing their home countries, especially Syria, and an increasing territorialisation of Islamic State. The response of the European Union was primarily to enforce its external borders using naval blockades and FRONTEX-led programmes to push back migrants even before they entered the European continent. Among European citizens, responses to the refugee crisis have differed. Concurrent to moral panics as well as outbursts of violence and discrimination, a plethora of counter movements can be observed, either organised in cooperation with refugee organisations and NGO’s, or in the shape of privately organized initiatives. This panel will discuss the different ways in which people of everyday life Europe choose to ‘give a helping hand’, doing their own aiding work in support of refugees coming to Europe. Papers will discuss various forms of citizen mobilization and engagements, from self- organized fundraising to illegal smuggling of single individuals across borders. By ethnographically investigating the rationales, aspirations and experiences of the private initiatives and activism, the panel aims at enhancing our understanding of how everyday ‘aiding practices’ can be seen as ways of enacting the European citizen. Are some of these practices representing new forms of humanitarianism? What can these practices tell us about the Europeanisation process? Are the aiding practices are a critique or a distancing from the European project? Or can some of the practices also be understood as signaling new kinds of European citizen awareness and ‘everyday life Europeanisation’? We welcome papers from researchers as well as practitioners from volunteer organizations or initiatives engaging empirically, ethnographically and/or theoretically with the above questions.
Keywords: ‘Helping hands’, rebordering, citizen mobilization, smuggling, humanitarianism, European project
Organizers: Synnøve Bendixsen, University of Bergen, Marie Sandberg, University of Copenhagen and Dorte Jagetic Andersen, University of Southern Denmark.
31. Immobilities, detours and delays. Migrants in contemporary welfare states
The migration process is often interpreted as social, economic and biographical progress. Migrants are envisioned to move for betterment and advancement, and integration, particularly as a social scientific concept, is framed as progress. Not progressing, then, is often framed as failure: this applies to individuals’ perceptions of themselves, policy-making and theoretical frameworks. The idea of linear progress in space and time has however been challenged: Migrants are stuck at the borders, in transit, in occupational deadends and in precarious positions. This workshop invites presentations dealing with immobilities and liminalities in the context of the restructuring of the welfare states, e.g in the public services, other welare programs or changing labour markets. We are particularly interested in temporal aspects of immobilities: waiting, being stuck, queuing, in the delays and postponings involved in mobilities and integration processes. Further, we are interested in the various discrepancies and asynchronities between temporalities, such as personal time, biographical time and organizational time or policy-time. How are immobilities and liminalities intersectionally ordered and how are they connected to life course mobilities? The main interest in the workshop is in the post-migration experiences, but we also welcome presentations with a focus on migration journeys and transnational mobilities.
Keywords: Migration, Immobility, Temporality, Welfare States, Precariousness
Organizers: Lotta Haikkola, Hanna Kara, and Camilla Nordberg, University of Helsinki.
32. International migration and informal economy
During the past two decades the notion of informal economy has moved into the center of attention not only of social scientists, but also of politicians, policy of makers and not least of journalists. Originally, the concept was theorized by the anthropologist Keith Hart (1973) and became a concept that gained a lot of attention by the International Labour Organisation’s (ILO) Research Program on Urban Unemployment in the beginning of 1970s (Bangasser, 2000), and was associated exclusively with the analyses of economic and social processes in Third Worlds countries. During the 1980s, the concept of the informal economy was brought into play as useful for explaining social and economic processes in First World countries. However, it immediately came to be associated with increased immigration from Third World countries to the West. According to this view, increased informalization of the advanced economies was result of increased number of immigrants from developing countries. This way of understanding was criticized already during the 1990s, both in the American and European literature with argument that informalization of first world economies is not generated by immigrants and their culture, but rather by the structural changes taking place in these economies. Despite this the dominant academic, medial and political discourses have remained to be primarily characterised by direct causal association between immigration and informalization. Our theoretical perspectives understand informalization of Western economies as closely related to the wider processes of on-going neoliberal economic restructuring, consisting of privatization, deregulation, flexibilization and the decline of welfare. Corporate strategies of downsizing, outsourcing and subcontracting create new spaces for informalization of employment relations while welfare states redefine their role in terms of protecting the vulnerable in an increasingly “disciplinarian” manner in which “the poor” are increasingly seen as “undeserving”, rather than simply structurally disadvantaged. Thus, the state and large business can be identified as part of a process of informalization from above. Additionally there is a process of informalization from below constituted by the agency of a range of marginalised actors, such as low-income earners, and small-businesses, operating in work-intensive and highly competitive markets, as well as their workforces, increasingly comprising poorly protected migrant labour, where the irregular migrants become the most precarious and docile labourers (Öberg 2015). Their engagement in the informal economy is, on the one hand, a reaction or resistance to informalization from above, that is, marginalization, exploitation, and stigmatization, and on the other hand, the survival strategies in this context (Slavnic, 2010).
This workshop invites papers from all disciplines that either have the intention to contribute to the development of this theoretical perspective on a more complex relationship between migration and informal economy, where global economic trends, the state, social stratification, national capitalist interests etc. are important factors or intend to put this perspective in question. We also welcome both empirical and theoretical papers.
Keywords: Informal economy, international migration, informalization from above, informalization from below
Organizers: Zoran Slavnic, Associate Professor, REMESO, Linköping University, Klara Öberg, Malmö University.
33. Migration and (im)mobilities in Turkey: Temporariness, precarity and differential inclusion
The workshop calls for papers exploring themes of migration and (im)mobility, forms of temporariness, and migrants and refugees’ strategies to reach existential security through movement, citizenship processes or other acts. The call derives from the Turkish context. While the war in Syria resulted in over 3 million Syrian nationals fleeing to Turkey, Turkey has been (and is) the destination and transit country for millions of refugees and migrants from diverse backgrounds. The Turkish state has historically approached various refugees and asylum seekers differently. The legal framework including the geographical restriction on the 1951 Convention, the Resettlement Law, and the privileging of labor over presence had and have a great impact on migrants’ and refugees’ statuses in Turkey. The legal framework has created a stratified system of differential inclusion. Equally, various types and modes of inclusion and exclusion emerge in Turkish society and members’ approaches to different migration waves and migrant and refugee populations. The multiplication of statuses and forms of protection has institutionalized immobility and insecurity for certain groups while maintaining pathways to mobility for others, and thus, created tensions among different refugees, asylum seekers and migrants. Other than Turkey’s internal changes, refugees and migrants are still dealing with the effects of the Turkey-EU agreement of 2016.
The panel invites contributions that explore the migratory framework in Turkey; the formal and informal structures (social, media, etc) that determine the status and everyday lives of refugees; different state institutions and civil society organizations‘ engagement with refugee and migrant support; the ways that migrants and refugees themselves seek pathways within and without state structures to actualize their mobility, secure steady income, and achieve existential security. Furthermore, the panel invites contributions providing a historical perspective on migration in Turkey.
Keywords: Forced migration, Turkey, EU-Turkey migration deal
Organizers: Gabriele Cloeters (PhD Candidate), Mercator-IPC Fellow and Dr. Souad Osseiran, Mercator-IPC Fellow.
34. Racialized b(orders), securitization and ‘’missing citizens’’
The political imperative of the ‘civic integrationist turn’ in the ‘making of citizens’ which inadvertently excludes undesirable individuals and ethnic collectives has to be placed within the context of the current political climate of fragmentation and re-emergence of the ultra- right, nationalist, neo-imperial and conservative rhetoric in the old and new Europe and beyond. This rhetoric attempts to revive the essentialist and racist identifications and rigid biopolitical (b)orders contributing to (re)positioning and distinction between citizens and non-citizens, and also the more vague categories of various internal others such as “missing citizens” (les citoyens manquants”, in Iveković’s (2015) formulation). In the present situation of imperceptible normalization of the permanent state of exception outside the actual zones of war and conflict, more and more groups of people are turned into Agambenian “bare lives” or the new “anthropos” (Agamben, 1998; Nishitani, 2006) whose human rights are systematically revoked, restricted and inverted (Hinkelammert, 2004) and who are regulated, threatened and monitored through disciplinary regimes and different forms of (im)mobilization such as racial, ethnic and religious profiling, identity controls, draconian immigration laws (Balibar, 2001 Fassin, 2013) as forms of excluding people from the ontological reality and effectively denying their existence as humans. Present day economic, military, political and other disasters just like colonialism before, still produce victims who are then treated as a continuation of catastrophes, carrying like plague their disaster wherever they go (Tlostonova, 2014). These “monsters, marked as the continued sign of ill fate and ruin” are contemporary “problem people” (Jane Anne and Lewis Gordon, 2010) unwelcome in most societies. A central theme that governs these processes is the management of these problem ethnic communities and urban peripheries that adhere to an ‘alternate social order’. They are seen as supposedly hotbeds of criminality and an antithesis to White European/Western/Northern values. The racialized making of citizen/non-citizen reaffirms the superiority of Swedish whiteness while simultaneously posing a threat to the ‘purity of the white nation’. Furthermore, in shifting the responsibility on to the individual rather than the collective and the State, the racialized subject becomes the insignificant ‘Other’; dispensable and disposable (Thapar-Björkert, Molina, Rana forthcoming, 2018); lying on the other side of the ‘epistemic fracture’ with no communication with institutionalized society.
Keywords: Racialized Borders, Immobilization, Immigrant, Securitisation
Organizers: Prof. Madina Tlostanova, Tema Genus, Linköping University and Dr. Suruchi Thapar-Björkert, Department of Government, Uppsala University.
35. Disrupting good intentions of sport as a tool for inclusion and integration
Recent years have witnessed a large number of refugees from countries such as Syria, Afghanistan, Iraq and many others, arriving in Europe to seek political asylum. There are multiple challenges that the incoming refugees and the hosting countries face. The incoming migrants have to navigate the different cultural practices of their host countries in relation to their own culture; and the hosting countries have to negotiate with resource allocation in the face of a rising populist politics. Although 2017 saw a de-escalation of these migratory movements, issues related to human rights, welfare and social inclusion of refugees have remained central in Europe and European politics. Sport, has been proposed as a potential facilitator for ‘integration’ and ‘social inclusion’ of migrant populations into hosting countries. The EU commission’s White Paper on Sport, states that all citizens and residents should have access to sport, whilst also drawing attention to the health benefits of sport and physical activity. It also highlights the benefits of sport in support of inter-cultural dialogue and acculturation (second culture learning), suggesting that sport contributes significantly to economic and social cohesion and consequently sport involvement leads to more integrated societies. (http://eurlex.europa.eu/legalcontent/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A52007DC0391).
There are, however, studies of sport practices that question the role of sport as a tool for social integration or as a mean to promote respect for ethnic, racial or gender diversity, stressing its ‘dark social capital’ such as gender and racial discrimination, doping, commercialization and women’s under-representation in sport governing bodies (Kamberidou & Patsadaras, 2007; Kamberidou, 2011). In other words, it is not evident that all sport activities have the same outcome. It is therefore important to study, create and implement ways in which sports can lead to social inclusion and de-segregation. In this workshop, we welcome papers that are investigating the field of sport and physical activity through a critical lens, highlighting the challenges within existing traditions and working towards inclusive and participatory practices.
We propose the following themes for paper submission: Empirical work on sport and integration; Theorization of inclusion and PA and sport; Culturally relevant and inclusive methodologies which are working toward decolonizing the practices and the field.
Keywords: sport, integration, social capital, decolonizing practices
Organizers: Susanna Hedenborg (Associate Professor), Kelly Knez (Senior lecturer), Sepandarmaz Mashreghi (PhD Candidate), Department of Sport Sciences, Malmö University.
36. Representations of “immigrant” in policy discourses, structuring and practices of public services and in reasoning of helping professions in Nordic countries and beyond
This working group focuses on the representations of “immigrant” in welfare services. First, how the category of the “immigrant” is constituted and reasoned in the public services in the context of the Nordic welfare nation state and beyond? Second, how the category of the “immigrant” is constructed and reasoned in knowledge building of helping professions (e.g. social workers, medical doctors, nurses, educators and psychologists), in pre- and in-service training professionals and in higher education degree course literature and professional literature. Who is the immigrant in these discourses, how the category of “immigrant” intersects with other social categories? How does the category of immigrant relate to categories of refugee and asylum seeker often attached to “immigrant” within the public discourse?
The working group welcomes both empirical and theoretical studies that critically explore and problematize the reasoning of public services and helping professions. The theoretical points of departure can be related, but not limited to the following: welfare nation state and its others, migration and the nation state, biopolitics and necropolitics, universalist and particularist perspectives of welfare, reconstitution of welfare and welfare services within neoliberal times, modern/colonial-capitalist world system, multicultural/intercultural/cultural group -specific service orientation, and postcolonial, feminist and other theoretical problematisations of “help”. Moreover, analysis of racialized, gendered, sexualised, classed and religion-related constructions, divisions and power asymmetries among “immigrants” as well as “immigrants” and “locals” within welfare services and welcome.
Keywords: policy discourses, immigrants, postcolonial problematization of help, biopolitics, necropolitics
Organizers: Anna-Leena Riitaoja, Ph.D. The Swedish School of Social Science, University of Helsinki & TBA.
37. Spaces of solidarity and social protection in times of austerity
The purpose of this workshop is to identify and explore spaces of solidarity and social protection in the area of social work with a particular focus on formal and informal social work with mobile populations. The workshop gives priority to research that explores new theoretical and methodological perspectives on these spaces. Critical deconstructions of social work institutions and practices have identified its oppressive and controlling dimensions. In contrast to these, nevertheless important, this workshop set focus on social work grounded in emancipatory values of solidarity and social justice. In times of austerity and repressive border regimes, social workers, as well as other professionals and activists in their daily work experience the consequences of, and sometimes contribute to, current restrictive policies and practices (deportations, temporary residence permit, restrictive family reunification, etc.). While some social workers are involved in the implementation of these repressive measures, others counteract and resist this development, both inside and outside formal welfare institutions. In their work, they go beyond and challenge institutionalized border regimes and related authoritarianism. These social workers witness the everyday suffering of undocumented migrants. At different levels, they participate and give support to alternative responses that protect migrants in vulnerably situations. To this workshop we invite papers that problematize these processes in social work and that present new theoretical and methodological perspectives and develop argument on different ethical issues. Papers on formal or informal social work with mobile populations, papers on social work organizations run by migrant- and/or professionals in local, national and/or border crossing contexts.
Keywords: spaces of solidarity, social work, social protection, austerity, mobility
Organizers: Kristina Gustafsson, Linné University, Sabine Gruber Linköpings universitet, Erica Righard, Malmö universitet and Norma Montesino, Lunds universitet.
38. Resisting practices beyond binaries
This workshop aims to explore and discuss the profile, practice and normativity in civil society practices among and for migrants While top-down political migration discourse and practice are marked by increasing tendencies towards restriction and closure in most countries, we also see the establishment of a pattern rooted in practices with a different profile. For example, in Gothenburg, a cooperation between a local Lutheran church and a voluntary organization has for many years been a strong voice to defend the lives of irregular migrants in Southern Sweden (Khosravi 2010, Nahnfeldt 2014, Wyller 2014). In the late Fall of 2015 a significant part of the local population in Sør-Varanger, the border area between Norway and Russia, organized to develop more inclusive practice towards migrants than was ordered by the Norwegian authorities (Brox 2016). Even if there are other practices aiming at less restrictive patterns of inclusion than we see in on the national level, there is a suspicion that also the alternative practices stay in an oppressive host/guest binary (Agamben 2008). A more generous hospitality does not have to imply that orientalist traditions are put behind. However, the broad initiative coming out of Engin Isin`s research and concept of acts of citizenship (Isin 2007) and Edward Soja`s focus on “third space” (Soja 1996) have opened a new wave of research in the theory and practice of what a non –binary host/guest hospitality might be. Recent research (Sander / Villadsen / Wyller 2016) has opened discussions on whether there might be emerging practices that combine agency and hospitality.
The workshop invites papers on different kinds of civil society practices that oppose the existing border regimes. What is the migrant voice in them? An examination of the kind of values emerging in them is also interesting. Research so far indicates that some of these practices are a ground for creating alternative identities, where not only hosts, but also migrants themselves act beyond the host/guest binary and seem to take on a role of more active subjects and agents (Isin 2007, Wyller 2016) Are they driven by cosmopolitan, religious or humanitarian forms of solidarity, or can we see new practices and values where traditional categories and binaries are becoming less relevant?
Keywords: Civil society practices, alternative identities, forms of solidarities
Organizers: Cecilia Nahnfeldt, Docent, Chair Research Unit in the Church of Sweden, Trygve Wyller, Professor, University of Oslo.
39. Insecure lives: Everyday effects of irregular migration in Nordic welfare states
There is a growing number of migrants living in each Nordic country, who lack residence permit, have overstayed it, or are in otherwise precarious legal and social position. Such migrants include a wide diversity of non-citizens who are often shifting between different legal categories, e.g. students, asylum seekers, temporary workers, EU citizens without social insurance coverage, etc. All of these groups have limited access to welfare services due to their precarious citizenship status. This has produced a deepening contradiction between universalistic residence-based welfare system and the migrants’ de facto lack of access to welfare and social rights. It has also meant that an increasing number of people live their lives under constant fear of being detained and deported. Meanwhile, there has been a selective tightening of migration policies, increased deportation practices and internal bordering processes in each Nordic country. In order to understand the complexities of irregular migration, we need research on the daily effects of irregularity as well as the micro-level practices which produce irregularity. We welcome both empirical and conceptual papers.
Possible topics to investigate include, but are not limited to the following topics:
–Irregular migrants’ coping strategies and everyday encounters with the boundaries of welfare states
–Social, legal obstacles and racialized bordering that migrants with non-permanent residence face
–Gatekeeping roles of street/counter-level authorities and other actors
–Intermediary roles of NGOs, volunteers and civil society and daily practices related to ‘everyday bordering’
Keywords: Irregular migration, precarious citizenship, precarious legal status, racialized boardering
Organizers: Lena Näre, Associate Professor, Miika Tervonen, Senior researcher, Docent, University of Helsinki.
40. Spatial Aspects of Migrant Belonging: Translocality and Emotional Geographies
This workshop aims to critically reflect on the spatial aspects of migrant belonging. Scholars that have engaged with the translocality perspective study both mobility and embeddedness in everyday locations, re-grounding the migrant experience. As Brickell & Datta (2011, p.5) write, the translocality concept grapples with the challenge of understanding the “local as situated within a network of spaces, places and scales where identities are negotiated and transformed”. We examine belonging and place making beyond (and within) the national scale, keeping in mind that even though the migrant experience entails mobility, migrant subjects are also situated in terms of being gendered, racialized and classed and act within specific political and structural contexts that shape their sense of belonging.
The workshop also covers the emotional aspects of the relation between places and migrant life. Central for the ways in which places become meaningful for human subjects in general, there is comfort, fear, nostalgia, belonging, frustration etc. At the core of place making, there is also a constant pursuit of an emotional relation to the physical world. Migrants strive for “happy places”, for places where they feel safe, confident or even proud. These aspects of the interplay between place and subjects point to what Davidson and Milligan (2004) call emotional geographies.
We welcome presentations on, but not limited to:
How intersecting identity markers shape negotiations and access to different places in everyday life
How place matters in mechanisms of inclusion or exclusion to local, national and transnational communities
How material space affect sense of place, for example nature or the physical urban space
Methodological challenges when studying belonging and place-making across spaces, places and scales
How the displacement inherent for migration shape migrants’ emotional relation with their current place of settlement
How the configuration of place influences the emotional experience of being a migrant
How migrants contribute to place making through their emotional geographies of a specific place and other familiar places
Keywords: Migrant belonging, emotional geographies, translocality
Organizers: Greti-Iulia Ivana, Tina Mathisen, Micheline van Riemsdijk, Uppsala University.
41. Naturalization as stratification: how does naturalization affect the status and substance of citizenship?
Many scholars have shown that access to citizenship through naturalization is structured along dimensions of class, race, gender and nationality. But considerably less attention has been paid to how these stratifications as manifest in processes of naturalization coexist and coalesce with social strata among native citizens. Scholars who have addressed the issue have, among other things, analyzed the joint subordination of the weak or “failed” groups on both sides of the citizenship divide (Bridget Anderson). Another endeavor in the literature has examined the deleterious effects on precarious groups of rights-bearing citizens, those referred to by Margaret Somers as the “internally stateless superfluous citizens”. Still, much work remains to be done in exploring this interrelationship. Among other things, such work would be helpful in bridging the divide between the “inward-looking” and “boundary- conscious” approaches to citizenship that Linda Bosniak called for a few years back. In this workshop we examine this stratifying effect of naturalization, and its implications for the status and substance of citizenship, including civic, political, social and cultural rights. How do different naturalization policies affect the relationship between citizens and migrants? What happens with citizenship rights when the status of citizenship is transformed from a question of origin to one of merit? Is it possible to articulate obligations for newcomers in civic terms, or does it lapse into ethnonational interpretations of citizenship? How does selection by merit—such as selection schemes based on the education, resources or skills of applicants—affect the democratic legitimacy of citizenship? Does selection criteria target newcomers only, or do they bounce back and transform the status of precarious groups of natives as well, and if so, how?
The workshop invites papers from all social, economic, political, cultural and legal disciplines. Papers could address different naturalization processes or admission criteria; how they stratify different groups of citizens and migrants, and/or how they affect the democratic status and substance of citizenship itself. We welcome empirical and theoretical papers.
Keywords: Naturalization, stratification, citizenship
Organizers: Sara Kalm Lund University and Sofia Näsström Uppsala University.
42. Unpacking the migration-security nexus from the perspective of securitization
Migration and asylum have emerged as subjects to a process of securitization, which has served as the legitimizing factor for adopting restrictive measures and for limiting the rights of third-country nationals living in the European Union. An increasing number of studies has explored the migration-security nexus as it is experienced in the Nordic countries with the aim of producing counter narratives and discourses to challenge and contest the hegemonic framing of migration and migrants in a language of threat, risk and existential urgency. The securitization of migration frames migrants as objects of governance. It is interlinked with the systems of inequality, which operate through the institutional techniques of integration and via informal deficits and restrictions of rights, services and protection. Researchers have also started to pay more attention to the simultaneous production of reliance and securitization knowledges. It is noted that the construction of asylum seekers and mass migration as a significant disturbance requiring the receiving countries to opt for a resilient strategy has induced the securitization of migration. In addition to documenting and debating such changes, scholars have focused on promoting alternative discourses, for example, by bringing to the fore the issue of human security and the experiences of those targeted by securitization. This cross-disciplinary working group aims at collecting interventions that address the migration-security nexus and securitization of migration from different angles and through flexible and innovative methodologies. We do this in order to contribute to the further development of this area of study. The aim is to investigate the concepts and understandings of ‘security’ and ‘securitization’ linked to asylum and migration in their broader social, political, spatial and historic contexts.
We welcome submissions on a range of topics, including but not limited to the following themes:
Discursive production of migration-security nexus in political, popular and everyday physical and virtual environments; The analysis of the processes of securitization at the international, regional, and local level; Implications of securitization and its criticisms; Moving beyond the migration-security nexus. The objective is to make visible the processes of securitization, which lie at the core of European policies on migration and asylum, while simultaneously addressing the need to resist and bypass the categorizations and stigmatizations, not only by public and politicians, but by academics and academia too.
Keywords: Securitization and migration
Organizers: Eeva-Kaisa Prokkola, PhD, Senior Research Fellow, University of Oulu, and Dr Tiina Sotkasiira
43. Educational In/equalities and the Descendants of Immigrants
Education studies have always had a twin focus on differentiation and cohesion, on inequalities and equalities. Researchers have pointed out the role of education in preparing youth for their future place in capitalist production, in increasing their productivity, but also in sorting them and reproducing inequalities. At the same time, education has also been championed as central to integration in society and the promotion of equality, both through the acquisition of skills and social norms and through the social interactions and formations of lasting friendships. Today, the educational systems of many European countries are challenged, by the ideological tenets of neoliberalism and New Public Management but also—with the resurgence of authoritarian and far-right political parties—by discourses of hatred and exclusion.
In this session, we welcome presentations on how migration background and race affect—or is affected by—educational outcomes. Potential topics include a) how relationships with other students and adults within and outside schools affect descendants of immigrants; b) inclusive and exclusive practices in schools; c) the effect of immigration background and racialization on identification and educational outcomes; and d) the role of extra-curricular activities and civil society in perpetuating or challenging educational inequalities. True to the historic roots of the educational studies, we thus perceive educational in/equalities in a broad sense. This includes both direct outcomes (such as grades, attitudes, health, friendship patterns and identification) and indirect effects such as changes in segregation patters arising from parents' actions in anticipation of those outcomes. We invite contributions from all social sciences, and studies focusing on the particularities of the local as well as the national or trans-national contexts.
Keywords: Educational Inequalities, second generation immigrants
Organizers: Olav Nygård, PhD Student, REMESO, Linköping University and Alireza Behtoui, Professor, Södertörn University.
44. Beyond Racism: Anti-racism and Conviviality
During the past several decades scholars have, in a context of growing authoritarianism analysed the emergence of new forms of racist mobilisation across European societies framed through, among other things, a frontal critique towards multiculturalism and migration policies. These general European trends have increasingly come to dominate Nordic debates through racist representations of migrants and refugees as a threat to social cohesion and the “Nordic model”. However, research has also identified extensive and broad resistance to racism, which is exemplified in the ‘refugee welcome’ movements as well as in the networkds and civil society organisations emerging from the resitance and struggles against neo-Nazi movements and racist parties. Beside these more high profile forms of social protest, everyday struggles against ethnic discrimination and racialized inequalities have diversified in both form and content. These heterogeneous responses embody not only resistance against racism but in extension visions, strategies and practices towards social inclusion and solidarity. While postcolonial, critical race theory and feminist inspired scholarship has expanded and further developed fundamental knowledge on racism, there is still very little knowledge concerning forms of everyday resistance to racism and, more specifically, how people create forms of living together beyond racism. Anti-racism is often reduced to an “effect” and narrowly defined as the inverse of racism. At the core of the workshop are the analysis of anti-racism as a body of ideas in its own right, asking the question: What are anti-racists in favour of?, or Is anti-racism more than simply the antithesis of racism?
The aim of the workshop is to discuss, explore and further develop theoretical and empirical research exploring antiracist ideas, practices and strategies, focusing on various constellation of actors and forms of doing antiracism and everyday practices of conviviality. Departing from an intersectioinal perspective the aim of the workshop is also to explore the role of class, gender, race/ethnicity and generation within these emergent movements, organisations and networks. Furthermore, the workshop aims at facilitating the exploration of similarities and differences across European nation states, regions and localities in antiracist practices.
Keywords: Racism, anti-racism, resistance to racism, conviviality
Organizers: Professor Diana Mulinari. Dep of Gender Studies, Lund University and Associate Professor Anders Neergaard, REMESO, Linköping University.
45. Experiencing Immobility and Reintegration in the context of Normalized Transnational Migration
Since the migration researchers have posited that mobility trends go hand-in-hand with the rise of migration control and the emergence of global deportation regime, much have been written about the selective border controls and construction of illegality as an instrument of labour subordination backed with the populist ideologies of ethnic revival, and national purity (De Genova 2002, Bloch and Schuster 2005, Peutz 2006, Kanstroom 2007, Willen 2007, Gibney 2008, Ellermann 2009, De Genova and Peutz 2010, Hall 2012, Coutin 2015 to name a few). However, we still lack persuasive accounts on how new emerging immobilities (Carling 2002) are experienced in the context of normalized transnational migration ‘back home’. Imposed immobility can cause a sharper disruption of key people’s life strategies and can be experienced as displacement in the societies where transnational migration has become intricately woven into the fabric of everyday life (Lub- keman 2008, Chu 2010). At the same time, state-sanctioned modes of (im)mobility map onto the complex web of local dynamics of movement, defined by the social organization, the local systems of value, and the multi-layered histories of mobilities in a particular region (Gaibazzi 2015, Reeves 2011). Our workshop intends to turn to people’s lived experience of grappling with immo- bility rather than keep ‘seeing like a state’ (Amelina and Faist 2012, Kalir 2013). Shifting our attention to the lived experiences of the immobilised rather than the workings of state in a variety of contexts can challenge the normative constructions of mobility as norm, the main feature of contemporary world, and a primary object of study and immobility as associated with stasis, decline, passivity and powerlessness (Salazar and Smart 2011, Glick Shiller and Salazar 2013, Faist 2013). In this workshop we aim to engage into a discussion on new (im)mobilities by looking at experiences of migrants who become ‘immobile’ (as a result of immigration and border control policy changes and/or health, ageing, personal reasons) and who return back to the countries of origin and reintegrate in their communities. We do not only focus on immobility cases but also question what happens to people after their return in terms of reintegration strategies among migrants. Along similar lines, Kuschminder (2017) argues that reintegration strategies are fundamentally impacted by the life cycle of the return migrants and the choices they make in their reintegration; and at the same time structural and cultural environment of the country of return plays a vital role in reintegration. Consequently, while we look at different groups of return migrants, labour migrants, highly qualified migrants, and refugees we emphasize that the experiences and strategies of migrants in these particular processes may vary by gender, age and ethnicity, which challenge scholars to find systematic approaches to examine the cases and inform the theories.
We invite researchers who look at migrants in immobile stage of their lives within the context of various migration regimes to submit and present their respective works. Bringing research from a variety of regional contexts together can reveal how global politics and particular technologies of immobilization play out ‘on the ground’ and what specific consequences bear migrants and communities involved in migration process. For our double session workshop, a submission of an abstract of max 500 words is required to participate with a presentation of paper.
Keywords: Immobilization, return migration, reintegration, transnational migration regime
Organizers: Elena Borisova, PhD cand., University of Manchester, Nodira Kholmatova, PhD, European University Insititute.
46. Human Trafficking in Context
People from less affluent societies who manage to leave, increasingly arrange their journey through diverse contacts and agreements that are fragile, often involve large amounts of money and result in debt. Thus, attempts to become mobile involve multi-faceted risky routes. Many economic migrants who travel this way obtain jobs in the receiving destinations, however they are often confronted with often rather poor working conditions, for instances in the service industry (which includes including sex work, cleaning and kitchen work), or in the construction industry, which they must endure as most effectively lose their legislated social rights. No matter the citizenship status in the receiving society, when there is also coercion and some level of deceit involved with a third party who is assisting migrants in their travels, such migration is referred to as human trafficking by states and NGOs. On the one hand, the concept ‘trafficked’ is used as a means to explain how people who otherwise would be immobile (as a result of financial and political circumstances for instance) are presented with an opportunity to become mobile, albeit on dubious premises. On the other hand, human trafficking in a political context is regarded as a migration regime that conditions the (im)mobility of people. In light of the recent European xenophobia, a convergence of anti-trafficking policies and border control polices both on a nation state level and a supra-nation state level takes place. Here, governments’ anti-trafficking initiatives in terms of repatriation programmes targeting identified victims of human trafficking as well as deportations, preliminary charges and investigations of ‘traffickers’ or ‘perpetrators’ criminalize the migrants. In addition, such political approaches to migration and human trafficking portray the state as the victim of the transnationally organized crime and at the same time leave migrants who have been identified as victims of trafficking in a precarious position. Thus, anti-trafficking policies can be seen as a way for the state to find innovative ways to exclude undesired populations.
Approaching human trafficking as a politically contested phenomenon involving not just migrants, but other actors, human as well as non-human, this workshop invites papers that for instances focus on: The intersection between migration and anti-trafficking policies; Legal procedures in trials related to human trafficking; The criminalisation of victims of human trafficking; The role of the internet and social media in human trafficking; Modus aparandi of transnational (trafficking) networks.
Keywords: Migration, human trafficking, anti-trafficking policies, transnational trafficking networks
Organizers: Marlene Spanger, Associate Professor Global Refugee Studies/CoMID,Aalborg University, Dr Nicol Foulkes Savinetti, HopeNow (NGO).