Biomedical Materials, 6 credits (TFTB40)

Biomedicinska material, 6 hp

Main field of study

Engineering Biology

Level

Second cycle

Course type

Programme course

Examiner

Mehrdad Rafat

Director of studies or equivalent

Magnus Boman

Available for exchange students

Yes
Course offered for Semester Period Timetable module Language Campus VOF
6MBME Biomedical Engineering, Master's Programme 3 (Autumn 2020) 1 1 English Linköping v
6CTBI Engineering Biology, M Sc in Engineering (Devices and Materials in Biomedicine) 9 (Autumn 2020) 1 1 English Linköping o

Main field of study

Engineering Biology

Course level

Second cycle

Advancement level

A1X

Course offered for

  • Master's Programme in Biomedical Engineering
  • Engineering Biology, M Sc in Engineering

Entry requirements

Note: Admission requirements for non-programme students usually also include admission requirements for the programme and threshold requirements for progression within the programme, or corresponding.

Prerequisites

Basic university level courses in chemistry, biology, physics, materials science and statistics.

Intended learning outcomes

This course will provide the basic knowledge of the various materials used in medicine including metals, ceramics, polymers, and composite materials used for the fabrication of medical devices and commonly used prostheses, as well as in the design and development of new materials for repair and replacement of failing or failed organs. The focus will be on polymeric biomaterials and their structure-property relationships. There will be discussions on the development of new materials that are targeted specifically to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. The student should after this course be able to:< ul>

  • Understand the basic structure and property relationships of metal, ceramic, polymeric, biopolymeric, and composite materials systems.
  • Understand structure-property relationships of biological materials, including major tissues found in the body.
  • Be familiar with characterization methods commonly used to analyze biomaterials.
  • Name and describe a few specific materials in each of the main categories of materials used in medicine, such as metals, ceramics, polymers, degradable polymers, and biopolymers.
  • Have an understanding of the requirements for materials used in several application areas in the body, such as soft tissue replacements, hard tissue replacements, blood contacting devices, as well as transplants and tissue engineered devices.
  • Describe some advantages and disadvantages of different biomaterials as well as the main sterilization methods used in the medical device industry.
  • Describe the main degradation mechanisms of materials in the body.
  • Understand how to design biomaterials for certain applications as well as executing research experiments in a systematic approach (e.g. Multi-factorial design and statistical optimization) to develop new biomaterials.
  • Have a general understanding of the commercialization process including how to get biomaterials to the Clinic including preclinical/clinical testing as well as principles of Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP).

  • Course content

    The course covers the major classes of materials used in medicine, such as metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. Structure, composition, mechanical properties, analytical methods, surface vs. bulk properties and degradation mechanisms of each material group will be reviewed with an emphasis placed on biopolymers and natural-based materials. Also covered are sterilization methods, and industry and regulatory standards required for implant materials and how to get biomaterials to patients. These aspects of biomaterials maybe further stressed in a site visit to a medical device manufacturer if feasible.

    Teaching and working methods

    The course is based on a combination of lectures, article review sessions, homework exercises, a potential site visit to a medical device company, and presentations of group tasks.
    Article Seminars address current materials issues within the medical implant field. Each article is read, summarized and criticized during presentation/tutorial sessions. Emphasis is placed on the materials used, processing methods, characterization, and performance.

    Examination

    TEN2Written examinationU, 3, 4, 52.5 credits
    UPG2Presentation, assignementsU, 3, 4, 52 credits
    LAB2Laboratory workU, 3, 4, 51.5 credits
    For the group tasks, each group of students will presents a particular application area of materials in medicine, biology or artificial tissues and organs. The application areas will be presented orally by the students during special sessions towards the middle/end of the course.

    Grading is based on a final written examination, group work exercise (e.g. project report and presentation), laboratory reports, and quiz & homework. The final grade will be calculated as a weighted mean where the written examination, the group work project, the lab report, and quiz & homework gives 40%, 30%, 20%, and 10% of the final mark, respectively. Students need to get a passing mark (i.e. at least 3) in all the above to pass the course. Note that the quiz & homework is a part of the group work project (i.e. examination code UPG2). Hence, UPG2 has to total weight of 30%+10%=40%.

    Grades

    Four-grade scale, LiU, U, 3, 4, 5

    Other information

    Supplementary courses: Material in Medicine (CDIO)

    About teaching and examination language

    The teaching language is presented in the Overview tab for each course. The examination language relates to the teaching language as follows: 

    • If teaching language is Swedish, the course as a whole or in large parts, is taught in Swedish. Please note that although teaching language is Swedish, parts of the course could be given in English. Examination language is Swedish. 
    • If teaching language is Swedish/English, the course as a whole will be taught in English if students without prior knowledge of the Swedish language participate. Examination language is Swedish or English (depending on teaching language). 
    • If teaching language is English, the course as a whole is taught in English. Examination language is English. 

    Other

    The course is conducted in a manner where both men's and women's experience and knowledge are made visible and developed. 

    The planning and implementation of a course should correspond to the course syllabus. The course evaluation should therefore be conducted with the course syllabus as a starting point.  

    Department

    Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi

    Director of Studies or equivalent

    Magnus Boman

    Examiner

    Mehrdad Rafat

    Education components

    Preliminary scheduled hours: 50 h
    Recommended self-study hours: 110 h

    Course literature

    Kopior på föreläsningsbilder, Laborationshandledningar samt BIOMATERIALS SCIENCE: AN INTRODUCTION TO MATERIALS IN MEDICINE by Buddy D. Ratner, Allan S. Hoffman, Frederick J. Schoen, Jack E. Lemons, Hardcover: 864 pages Publisher: Academic Press; 2 edition (Jul 29 2004) ISBN-10: 01258246 PRINCIPLES OF TISSUE ENGINEERING Edited By Robert Lanza, Chief Scientific Officer, Advanced Cell Technology, MA, USA; Adjunct Professor, Institute of Regenerative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, NC, USA Robert Lanza Advanced Cell Technology 381 Plantation Street Worcester, MA 01605, Robert Langer, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, U.S.A. Joseph Vacanti, Harvard Medical School and the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, U.S.A.
    Kopior på föreläsningsbilder, Laborationshandledningar samt BIOMATERIALS SCIENCE: AN INTRODUCTION TO MATERIALS IN MEDICINE by Buddy D. Ratner, Allan S. Hoffman, Frederick J. Schoen, Jack E. Lemons, Hardcover: 864 pages Publisher: Academic Press; 2 edition (Jul 29 2004) ISBN-10: 01258246 PRINCIPLES OF TISSUE ENGINEERING Edited By Robert Lanza, Chief Scientific Officer, Advanced Cell Technology, MA, USA; Adjunct Professor, Institute of Regenerative Medicine, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, NC, USA Robert Lanza Advanced Cell Technology 381 Plantation Street Worcester, MA 01605, Robert Langer, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, U.S.A. Joseph Vacanti, Harvard Medical School and the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, U.S.A.
    TEN2 Written examination U, 3, 4, 5 2.5 credits
    UPG2 Presentation, assignements U, 3, 4, 5 2 credits
    LAB2 Laboratory work U, 3, 4, 5 1.5 credits
    For the group tasks, each group of students will presents a particular application area of materials in medicine, biology or artificial tissues and organs. The application areas will be presented orally by the students during special sessions towards the middle/end of the course.

    Grading is based on a final written examination, group work exercise (e.g. project report and presentation), laboratory reports, and quiz & homework. The final grade will be calculated as a weighted mean where the written examination, the group work project, the lab report, and quiz & homework gives 40%, 30%, 20%, and 10% of the final mark, respectively. Students need to get a passing mark (i.e. at least 3) in all the above to pass the course. Note that the quiz & homework is a part of the group work project (i.e. examination code UPG2). Hence, UPG2 has to total weight of 30%+10%=40%.

    Course syllabus

    A syllabus must be established for each course. The syllabus specifies the aim and contents of the course, and the prior knowledge that a student must have in order to be able to benefit from the course.

    Timetabling

    Courses are timetabled after a decision has been made for this course concerning its assignment to a timetable module. 

    Interrupting a course

    The vice-chancellor’s decision concerning regulations for registration, deregistration and reporting results (Dnr LiU-2015-01241) states that interruptions in study are to be recorded in Ladok. Thus, all students who do not participate in a course for which they have registered must record the interruption, such that the registration on the course can be removed. Deregistration from a course is carried out using a web-based form: https://www.lith.liu.se/for-studenter/kurskomplettering?l=en. 

    Cancelled courses

    Courses with few participants (fewer than 10) may be cancelled or organised in a manner that differs from that stated in the course syllabus. The Dean is to deliberate and decide whether a course is to be cancelled or changed from the course syllabus. 

    Guidelines relating to examinations and examiners 

    For details, see Guidelines for education and examination for first-cycle and second-cycle education at Linköping University, http://styrdokument.liu.se/Regelsamling/VisaBeslut/917592.

    An examiner must be employed as a teacher at LiU according to the LiU Regulations for Appointments (https://styrdokument.liu.se/Regelsamling/VisaBeslut/622784). For courses in second-cycle, the following teachers can be appointed as examiner: Professor (including Adjunct and Visiting Professor), Associate Professor (including Adjunct), Senior Lecturer (including Adjunct and Visiting Senior Lecturer), Research Fellow, or Postdoc. For courses in first-cycle, Assistant Lecturer (including Adjunct and Visiting Assistant Lecturer) can also be appointed as examiner in addition to those listed for second-cycle courses. In exceptional cases, a Part-time Lecturer can also be appointed as an examiner at both first- and second cycle, see Delegation of authority for the Board of Faculty of Science and Engineering.

    Forms of examination

    Examination

    Written and oral examinations are held at least three times a year: once immediately after the end of the course, once in August, and once (usually) in one of the re-examination periods. Examinations held at other times are to follow a decision of the board of studies.

    Principles for examination scheduling for courses that follow the study periods:

    • courses given in VT1 are examined for the first time in March, with re-examination in June and August
    • courses given in VT2 are examined for the first time in May, with re-examination in August and October
    • courses given in HT1 are examined for the first time in October, with re-examination in January and August
    • courses given in HT2 are examined for the first time in January, with re-examination in March and in August.

    The examination schedule is based on the structure of timetable modules, but there may be deviations from this, mainly in the case of courses that are studied and examined for several programmes and in lower grades (i.e. 1 and 2). 

    Examinations for courses that the board of studies has decided are to be held in alternate years are held three times during the school year in which the course is given according to the principles stated above.

    Examinations for courses that are cancelled or rescheduled such that they are not given in one or several years are held three times during the year that immediately follows the course, with examination scheduling that corresponds to the scheduling that was in force before the course was cancelled or rescheduled.

    When a course is given for the last time, the regular examination and two re-examinations will be offered. Thereafter, examinations are phased out by offering three examinations during the following academic year at the same times as the examinations in any substitute course. If there is no substitute course, three examinations will be offered during re-examination periods during the following academic year. Other examination times are decided by the board of studies. In all cases above, the examination is also offered one more time during the academic year after the following, unless the board of studies decides otherwise.

    If a course is given during several periods of the year (for programmes, or on different occasions for different programmes) the board or boards of studies determine together the scheduling and frequency of re-examination occasions.

    Registration for examination

    In order to take an examination, a student must register in advance at the Student Portal during the registration period, which opens 30 days before the date of the examination and closes 10 days before it. Candidates are informed of the location of the examination by email, four days in advance. Students who have not registered for an examination run the risk of being refused admittance to the examination, if space is not available.

    Symbols used in the examination registration system:

      ** denotes that the examination is being given for the penultimate time.

      * denotes that the examination is being given for the last time.

    Code of conduct for students during examinations

    Details are given in a decision in the university’s rule book: http://styrdokument.liu.se/Regelsamling/VisaBeslut/622682.

    Retakes for higher grade

    Students at the Institute of Technology at LiU have the right to retake written examinations and computer-based examinations in an attempt to achieve a higher grade. This is valid for all examination components with code “TEN” and "DAT". The same right may not be exercised for other examination components, unless otherwise specified in the course syllabus.

    A retake is not possible on courses that are included in an issued degree diploma. 

    Retakes of other forms of examination

    Regulations concerning retakes of other forms of examination than written examinations and computer-based examinations are given in the LiU guidelines for examinations and examiners, http://styrdokument.liu.se/Regelsamling/VisaBeslut/917592.

    Plagiarism

    For examinations that involve the writing of reports, in cases in which it can be assumed that the student has had access to other sources (such as during project work, writing essays, etc.), the material submitted must be prepared in accordance with principles for acceptable practice when referring to sources (references or quotations for which the source is specified) when the text, images, ideas, data, etc. of other people are used. It is also to be made clear whether the author has reused his or her own text, images, ideas, data, etc. from previous examinations, such as degree projects, project reports, etc. (this is sometimes known as “self-plagiarism”).

    A failure to specify such sources may be regarded as attempted deception during examination.

    Attempts to cheat

    In the event of a suspected attempt by a student to cheat during an examination, or when study performance is to be assessed as specified in Chapter 10 of the Higher Education Ordinance, the examiner is to report this to the disciplinary board of the university. Possible consequences for the student are suspension from study and a formal warning. More information is available at https://www.student.liu.se/studenttjanster/lagar-regler-rattigheter?l=en.

    Grades

    The grades that are preferably to be used are Fail (U), Pass (3), Pass not without distinction (4) and Pass with distinction (5). 

    1. Grades U, 3, 4, 5 are to be awarded for courses that have written examinations.
    2. Grades Fail (U) and Pass (G) may be awarded for courses with a large degree of practical components such as laboratory work, project work and group work.
    3. Grades Fail (U) and Pass (G) are to be used for degree projects and other independent work.

    Examination components

    1. Grades U, 3, 4, 5 are to be awarded for written examinations (TEN).
    2. Examination components for which the grades Fail (U) and Pass (G) may be awarded are laboratory work (LAB), project work (PRA), preparatory written examination (KTR), oral examination (MUN), computer-based examination (DAT), home assignment (HEM), and assignment (UPG).
    3. Students receive grades either Fail (U) or Pass (G) for other examination components in which the examination criteria are satisfied principally through active attendance such as other examination (ANN), tutorial group (BAS) or examination item (MOM).
    4. Grades Fail (U) and Pass (G) are to be used for the examination components Opposition (OPPO) and Attendance at thesis presentation (AUSK) (i.e. part of the degree project).

    For mandatory components, the following applies: If special circumstances prevail, and if it is possible with consideration of the nature of the compulsory component, the examiner may decide to replace the compulsory component with another equivalent component. (In accordance with the LiU Guidelines for education and examination for first-cycle and second-cycle education at Linköping University, http://styrdokument.liu.se/Regelsamling/VisaBeslut/917592). 

    For written examinations, the following applies: If the LiU coordinator for students with disabilities has granted a student the right to an adapted examination for a written examination in an examination hall, the student has the right to it. If the coordinator has instead recommended for the student an adapted examination or alternative form of examination, the examiner may grant this if the examiner assesses that it is possible, based on consideration of the course objectives. (In accordance with the LiU Guidelines for education and examination for first-cycle and second-cycle education at Linköping University, http://styrdokument.liu.se/Regelsamling/VisaBeslut/917592).

    The examination results for a student are reported at the relevant department.

    Regulations (apply to LiU in its entirety)

    The university is a government agency whose operations are regulated by legislation and ordinances, which include the Higher Education Act and the Higher Education Ordinance. In addition to legislation and ordinances, operations are subject to several policy documents. The Linköping University rule book collects currently valid decisions of a regulatory nature taken by the university board, the vice-chancellor and faculty/department boards.

    LiU’s rule book for education at first-cycle and second-cycle levels is available at http://styrdokument.liu.se/Regelsamling/Innehall/Utbildning_pa_grund-_och_avancerad_niva. 

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