Citation technique and styles

In all academic texts, references are used to show from where information has been collected and to guide the reader to further reading.

There are three main reasons for referencing:

• to show which previous works your own work is drawing on
• to distinguish your own thoughts from those of others and to avoid suspicions of plagiarism
• to enable the reader to check out your sources or to delve deeper into the subject

Different disciplines have developed different ways of writing references and created various styles, such as Harvard, Oxford, APA, IEEE and Vancouver styles. Your supervisor should be able to tell you which is the most common and desirable style within your discipline. 

Once you have chosen a reference style, the library Referencing group can help with questions regarding specific references. You are welcome to email questions to

Online guides to reference styles
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Reference guide for APA (Karolinska Institute Library) 


Harvard style guide (Swinburne University of Technology)


IEEE citation style (Concordia University Library)
IEEE editorial style manual (IEEE Periodicals)
IEE Style (Murdoch University)


Oxford (Deakin University)


Reference guide Vancouver (Karolinska Institute Library)
Citing and referencing: Vancouver (Monash University)

Further reading
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Some examples of handbooks on academic writing and referencing. Many more can be found on shelf 808.02 (Scientific writing) in the Library.

Concise rules of APA style

Neville, C., The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism 
also available as e-book

Pears, R., Cite them right                                                                                                    

Williams, K. & Davis, M., Referencing and understanding plagiarism 


More about referencing
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