Citation technique and styles

In academic texts, references are used to show from where information has been collected and to guide the reader to further reading.

There are three main reasons for referencing:

  • to show which previous works your own work is drawing on
  • to distinguish your own thoughts from those of others and to avoid suspicions of plagiarism
  • to enable the reader to check out your sources or to delve deeper into the subject

Different disciplines have developed different ways of writing references. Examples of reference styles are Harvard, Oxford, APA, IEEE and Vancouver. Your supervisor should be able to tell you which is the most common and desirable style within your discipline.

Below you will find a selection of recommended online guides to reference styles.

Online guides to reference stylesShow/Hide content

APA

Reference guide for APA 7 (Karolinska Institute Library)
Reference guide for APA 7th edition (Lund University)

Harvard

Harvard Referencing (Birmingham City University)

IEEE

IEEE citation style (Concordia University Library)
IEEE editorial style manual (IEEE Periodicals)
IEEE Style (Murdoch University)

Oxford

Deakin guide to Oxford (Deakin University)

Vancouver

Reference guide Vancouver (Karolinska Institute Library)
Citing and referencing: Vancouver (Monash University)

Need help?

Once you have chosen a reference style, the Library can help with questions regarding specific references. You are welcome to email your questions. Don't forget to tell us which reference style you are using!

Contact: biblioteket@liu.se

You can also find answers to questions about referencing in the Library FAQ

Further readingShow/Hide content

Here are some examples of handbooks on academic writing and referencing. Many more can be found on shelf 808.02 (Scientific writing) in the Library.

Concise rules of APA style

Neville, C., The complete guide to referencing and avoiding plagiarism

Pears, R., Cite them right                                                                                                    

Williams, K. & Davis, M., Referencing and understanding plagiarism

Reference management softwareShow/Hide content

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