Photo of Annelie Lindström

Annelie Lindström

Associate Professor

Director of Doctoral Studies

Macrophage antigen expression in tumor cells – a consequence of cell fusion?

The aim of this project is to explore the cell fusion theory and illustrate its clinical impact on tumor progression and metastasis.

Cell fusion is a natural process in normal development and tissue regeneration. Fusion between cancer cells and macrophages generates metastatic hybrids with genetic and phenotypic characteristics from both maternal cells.

Monocytes are actively recruited to the tumor stroma and polarized by anti-inflammatory molecules to an immunosuppressive phenotype, so called Tumor Associated Macrophages, TAMs. High infiltration of TAMs is correlated to poor prognosis in breast, prostatic, ovarian and cervical carcinoma.

The cell fusion theory provides an explanation to several aspects regarding cancer, including the origin and metastasis of tumor cells.



Husam Oda, Elham Hedayati, Annelie Lindström, Ivan Shabo (2023) GATA-3 expression in breast cancer is related to intratumoral M2 macrophage infiltration and tumor differentiation PLOS ONE, Vol. 18, Article e0283003 Continue to DOI


Ivan Shabo, Joar Svanvik, Annelie Lindström, Tanguy Lechertier, Sara Trabulo, James Hulit, Tim Sparey, John Pawelek (2020) Roles of cell fusion, hybridization and polyploid cell formation in cancer metastasis World Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol. 11 Continue to DOI


Stina Garvin, Eva Vikhe Patil, Lars-Gunnar Arnesson, Husam Oda, Elham Hedayati, Annelie Lindström, Ivan Shabo (2019) Differences in intra-tumoral macrophage infiltration and radiotherapy response among intrinsic subtypes in pT1-T2 breast cancers treated with breast-conserving surgery Virchows Archiv, Vol. 475, p. 151-162 Continue to DOI