MAX IV Photon Science Infrastructure

Arealphoto of MAX IV in Lund, Sweden

The MAX IV Laboratory is a new generation large infrastructure synchrotron radiation research facility for materials science that replaced the previous MAX-laboratory that consisted of the MAX I, II and III storage rings. The main sources for spectroscopy and diffraction experiments at MAX IV are the large 3 GeV and the small 1.5 GeV storage rings with state-of-the-art low emittance for the production of hard and soft x-rays, respectively. The long linac injector also provides short pulses to a short pulse facility and a possible future free electron laser (FEL). 

One of the strategic goals of Advanced Functional Materials (AFM) at LiU is to improve the infrastructure in materials science in Sweden. In particular, we make a large and over time increasing investment in the MAX IV project. In 2010, we invested through strategic grants 1.53 MSEK, in 2011 2.44 MSEK and in 2012 and beyond we will invest 4.27 MSEK/year. Our goal is to ensure that the AFM researchers as well as the materials science community as a whole can obtain an improved access to state-of-the-art synchrotron radiation based techniques, with an emphasis on the soft x-ray region.

Funding by Swedish Universities for Phase I beamlines 2013-2022, 16 MSEK/year (total 162 MSEK with KAW funding: 400 MSEK): LiU ~1 MSEK/year (total: 10 MSEK).

Funding for running budget of “MAX IV in-kind program” for beamlines 2019-2023: 2.9 MSEK/year from LiU

MAX IV Sekretariat at LiU (with chairman Roger Uhrberg and secretary Martin Magnuson)

PhD Courses: Synchrotron Radiation 7.5 ECTS

LiU Large Infrastructure Advisory Committee (LiAC)

Projects

VERITAS beamline

The Very High Resolution, Intensity and Stability (VERITAS) –beamline at MAX IV is designed for advanced q-dependent Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering (RIXS) measurements of bulk bands and efficient X-ray absorption in the fluorescence mode. The beamline is a cooperation between Uppsala University and Linköping University where UU develops the X-ray spectrometer and LiU are developing a sample preparation chamber for advanced materials growth by using Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD). The magnetron sputtering deposition system will be used to prevent surface oxidation of the samples. The VERITAS beamline will be over 50 meters long in order to achieve a very small focus on the sample. Important advantages of the beamline is that the monochromator and the undulator can be scanned simultaneously, the polarization can be changed quickly from vertical to horizontal with the elliptically polarizing undulator (EPU), and the high resolution (resolving power).

For the VERITAS beamline at the 3 GeV ring, LiU contributes with in-kind for an Advanced Materials Synthesis Chamber (Martin Magnuson, Lars-Åke Näslund, Andrej Furlan, Lars Hultman).

Bloch beamline

The end station is equipped with the newly developed DA30 analyzer from Scienta for high-resolution angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) studies, a 6-axis manipulator which allows the sample cooling with liquid helium (Carving from Specs), an STM with variable sample temperature from Omicron and LEED. In addition to the analysis chamber for STM and ARPES experiments, the end station has two chambers for advanced sample preparation. The Bloch-beamline with the end station has been in operation since Jan. 2019.

For the Bloch beamline at the 1.5 GeV ring, LiU has contributed with in-kind for the experimental chamber (Roger Uhrberg). 

Cover of publication ''
Jalil Shah, Weimin Wang, Hafiz Muhammad Sohail, Roger Uhrberg (2021)

Physical Review B , Vol.104 Continue to DOI

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Jalil Shah, Weimin Wang, Hafiz Muhammad Sohail, Roger Uhrberg (2020)

Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering , Vol.7 Continue to DOI

BALDER beamline

LiU researchers have been active measuring XANES and EXAFS on various materials and were the first users at the BALDER beamline (read more).

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Rui Shu, Daniel Lundin, Binbin Xin, Mauricio A. Sortica, Daniel Primetzhofer, Martin Magnuson, Arnaud Le Febvrier, Per Eklund (2021)

ACS APPLIED ELECTRONIC MATERIALS , Vol.3 , s.2748-2756 Continue to DOI

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Martin Magnuson, Lars-Åke Näslund (2020)

Physical Review Research , Vol.2 , s.033516-1-033516-10 Continue to DOI

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Lina Rogström, Maiara Moreno, J. M. Andersson, M. P. Johansson-Jöesaar, Magnus Odén, K. Klementiev, Lars-Åke Näslund, Martin Magnuson (2023)

Applied Surface Science , Vol.612 Continue to DOI

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Rui Shu, Xiaofu Zhang, Ferenc Tasnadi, Weine Olovsson, Smita Gangaprasad Rao, Grzegorz Greczynski, Arnaud Le Febvrier, Martin Magnuson, Per Eklund (2023)

Annalen der Physik Continue to DOI

SPECIES beamline

LiU researchers have tested the limits and utilised the gas chamber at the Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (APXPS) branch of SPECIES.

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Lars-Åke Näslund, Mikko-Heikki Mikkelä, Esko Kokkonen, Martin Magnuson (2021)

2D Materials , Vol.8 Continue to DOI

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Susmita Chowdhury, Victor Hjort, Rui Shu, Grzegorz Greczynski, Arnaud Le Febvrier, Per Eklund, Martin Magnuson (2023)

Physical Review B , Vol.108 Continue to DOI

HIPPIE beamline

LiU researchers have been using the Ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS) at the HIPPIE beamline.

BioMAX beamline

LiU researchers have been using the X-ray macromolecular crystallography beamline.

FlexPES beamline

LiU researchers have been using the Flexible PhotoElectron Spectroscopy beamline for materials science.

Cover of publication ''
Yongzhen Chen, Xianjie Liu, Slawomir Braun, Mats Fahlman (2021)

ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces , Vol.13 , s.47218-47225 Continue to DOI

DiffMAX beamline

KAW has proposed to support the construction of the DiffMAX beamline by SEK 110 MSEK, provided that Swedish industry can merge and finance operations in the future of approximately SEK 11 MSEK/year. At present, a full-time researcher at MAX IV, beamline scientist Olivier Balmes, is working on the project. For the DiffMAX beamline at the 3 GeV ring, LiU can contribute with in-kind for the experimental chamber (Jens Birch). 

P21 beamline at PETRA III in Hamburg

The "Swedish beamline" P21 at PETRA III is a high-energy beamline of 40-150 keV for in-situ material characterization using X-ray scattering techniques. It is located in the new "Hall East" and is the longest beamline (100 m from the front-end and 200 m from the source) and there is room for three insertion devices (ID); an in-vacuum undulator, a canted undulator and in the future a wiggler. There are many benefits of this beamline including large penetration depth, non-destructive measurement of bulk, deeply buried layer, no beryllium windows necessary, large Ewald sphere, high time resolution, small beam size, and that the measurements can be done in air instead of vacuum at these high photon energies. LiU will have access to a large number of hours, funded by the Röntgen Ångström Consortium (RAC). 

Cover of publication ''
Torkel Stenqvist, Johan Hektor, Sara Bylund, Robert Moberg, Marten O. M. Edwards, Stephen A. Hall, Lars-Åke Näslund (2021)

Advanced Engineering Materials , Vol.23 Continue to DOI

Recent activities and in-kind contributions by LiU Large Infrastructure Advisory Committee (LiAC)

  • Discussion meeting about MAX IV from a LiU/IFM-perspective, November 12, 2021.

  • LiAC Teams meeting for input for LiUs 10-year strategy for MAX IV, June 23-26, 2021.

  • LiU Large Infrastructure Advisory Committee (LiAC) input meeting for MAX IV Strategy until 2030, June 3:rd, 2021.
  • LiU Large Infrastructure Advisory Committee (LiAC) meeting May 12:th -2020. Discussion about risk analysis and travel plans for beam times at MAX IV during Covid-19. How do we travel to MAX IV and avoid contact with other persons.
  • LiAC preparation meeting for SAC and URG, IFM, LiU, December 19, 2019.
  • Visit by MAX IV director Ian McNulty and Science Director Marjolein Thunnissen. Status presentation and in-kind discussions, Planck and Jordan-Fermi, IFM, LiU. 12:00-17:00, October 15, 2018
  • MAX IV in-kind discussions, Röntgen, P404, IFM, LiU, 08:30-10:00, April 26:th, 2018
  • MAX IV in-kind discussions, Röntgen, P404, IFM, LiU, 15:15-17:00 April 11:th, 2018
  • MAX IV in-kind discussions, Röntgen, P404, IFM, LiU, 15:15-17:00 February 7:th, 2018
  • Infrastructure meeting on MAX IV user operation on Friday, March 24:th, 13-15 IFM, in room Jordan-Fermi, 2017
  • Discussion on the next MAX IV beam line proposal at MAX IV, Infrastructure meeting on Thursday 23/6 at 9:15 in Jordan-Fermi, 2016
  • Workshop on MAX IV strategy, IFM, LiU, 9:15, June 23:rd, 2016
  • MAX IV beamline prioritiy discussions, IFM, LiU, 15:15 June 2:nd, 2016
  • Large Scale Infrastructure meeting on Input to the next MAX IV beam line proposal in October through our LiU University Reference Group (LiU-URG) at LiU Thursday 2/6 at 15:15 in Jordan-Fermi, 2016
  • Meeting on "National School in Neutron Scattering (GSn)” proposal to SSF, IFM, LiU, January 12:th 2016
  • Information meeting on "National School in Neutron Scattering (GSn)”, IFM, LiU, December 10:th, 2015
  • Local Committee meeting on Large Infrastructure, LiU IFM, 21 October 2015
  • Local Committee meeting on beamline priorities for phase 2, LiU IFM, 1 October 2013
  • Local Committee meeting on beamline priorities for phase 2b, LiU IFM, 14 February 2013
  • VERITAS experimental station meeting, Uppsala, 18 October 2012
  • VERITAS and MAX IV meeting at the building site, Lund, 15 June 2012
  • VERITAS control room design meeting with architect, MAX-lab, Lund, 8 March 2012
  • VERITAS coordination and design meeting at IFM, Linköping, 23 January 2012
  • Workshop on the "NanoMax Beamline, Hard X-ray Imaging" at MAX IV, AlbaNova, Stockholm, 18-19 October 2011
  • VERITAS coordination and design meeting at Ångström, Uppsala, 14 October 2011
  • Swedish-German Workshop on “The Challenge of Ambient Conditions”, Rosersberg Castle, 6-7 October 2011
  • Workshop on the Swedish beamline at "PETRA III, DESY", Hamburg, 29-30 August 2011
  • Swedish-German Workshop on “UHERIXS at PETRA III”, Rosersberg Castle, 9-10 June 2011
  • Seminar on the Swedish beamline at "PETRA III", Vetenskapsrådet, Stockholm, 2 February 2011
  • Presentation at the “VERITAS – beamline workshop”, Kista, 21 January 2011
  • Workshop on "Coherent Radiation for Imaging and Spectroscopy in the Röntgen-Ångström Cluster (RÅC)", Chalmerska huset, Gothenburg, 9 December 2010
  • Workshop on the Swedish beamline at "PETRA III”, Foresta Conference center, Lidingö, 25-26 October 2010 
  • Preparation meeting for the workshop “Workshop on the Swedish beamline at PETRA III”, Röntgen, 5 October 2010
  • Seminar on the Swedish beamline at "PETRA III"”, Vetenskapsrådet, Stockholm, 30 September 2010
  • Preparation meeting for "beamline proposals at MAX IV", Zenit, Linköping, 7 May 2010
  • 2:nd meeting in the National Reference Group for MAX IV, 9 March 2010.
  • Workshop "beamlines at MAX IV", Scandic Star, Lund, 22-23 February 2010
  • Preparation meeting for the workshop "Beamlines at MAX IV", Zenit, Linköping, 2 February 2010
  • 1:st meeting in the National Reference Group for MAX IV, 26 January 2010.

Related information

Advanced Functional Materials (AFM)

MAX IV laboratory

PETRA III

The European Spallation Source (ESS) for neutron scattering

Swiss Light Source (SLS)

European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF)

Advanced Light Source (ALS)

SPring-8

Spectroscopy using Synchrotron Radiation

Innovative Materials Arena

The Swedish Synchrotron Users Organisation (SSUO)

MS2E