Linköping University Negative Emission Technologies (LUNETs)

People sitting near industrial plant in Oulu, Finland.

The Paris Agreement’s goal requires not only radical emission reductions but also the generation of large amounts of negative greenhouse gas emissions. This goal has been criticised in part because the methods for negative emissions (NETs) have only been tested on a small scale, while there are many uncertainties. 

LUNETs studies the technical and economic possibilities of using NETs and primarily the methods bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) and biochar including their political and scientific contexts. BECCS means that carbon dioxide is separated from biomass that is processed at large scale facilities, for example at pulp and paper mills and combined heat and power plants. The carbon dioxide is then transported to suitable geological formations where it is deposited. A net negative effect could be achieved as the corresponding amount of processed biomass is regrown. Biochar is produced through slow pyrolysis of biomass and can then be placed on farmland to simultaneously bind carbon and improve soil quality. There are major knowledge gaps and lack of experience regarding both methods, but as the climate goals have become more ambitious, these methods have become more relevant in both political and scientific contexts.

LUNETs comprises several projects funded by the Swedish Research Council, Formas, the Swedish Energy Agency, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency and SIDA and includes Linköping University, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and the University of Dar es Salaam in Tanzania. The projects take different perspectives to jointly investigate the conditions for developing and implementing NETs in different geographical, regulatory, institutional and national contexts. Currently, Sweden, the Nordic countries, Europe and Tanzania are being investigated as cases. We are also studying how knowledge of different methods is constructed through scientific models, Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs), and the scientific debate on BECCS. LUNETs contributes with an understanding of how current structures and policies promote or limit the development of the methods, how this development could be supported in a constructive way and with critical perspectives on the global and national potential of the techniques. In addition, the projects engage various societal actors through ongoing dialogues to raise important issues and to include many perspectives on the methods at an early stage.

The conditions for BECCS and biochar

Landscape in Tanzania

By studying the different geographical contexts with varying theoretical potential for implementing/establishing BECCS, we can contribute to the ongoing discussions of its possible contribution to climate policy in a global, regional and national context. Not least, it is important to nuance and embody the global perspective on negative emission technologies so often presented in the models relied upon by the work of the IPCC.

In a global comparison, the Nordic countries have good preconditions to use large scale BECCS. Extensive forest cover, a modern and internationally competitive forest industry, many large point sources with biogenic carbon dioxide, potential to store carbon dioxide locally, along with national goals to reach climate neutrality or to achieve net negative emissions. Despite the good prerequisites, there are many challenges. For example, policy instruments and economic incentives to implement BECCS in industry are absent, infrastructure for transport is lacking, the technology is relatively unproven on a large scale, and industry interest is relatively low, with a few exceptions. The project team is mapping large point sources, evaluating possible policy instruments and examining perspectives on BECCS at individual companies including the industries concerned and at the forefront of technology development.

Several models identify potential for BECCS in forested developing countries, for example Tanzania. In a sub-project, we have concluded that the potential is negligible, but that biochar which is technically less complicated could result in immediate and tangible benefits for local communities and contribute to international climate efforts. We analyse how international support could contribute to biochar’s development and evaluate lessons learned from already completed biochar projects. Biochar field trials will be initiated in Tanzania in the coming year.

Research projects (selected)


Selected publications

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Amna Eltigani, Alexander Olsson, Ariane Krause, Baraka Ernest, Mathias Fridahl, Pius Yanda, Anders Hansson (2022)

Energy for Sustainable Development , Vol.71 , s.141-150 Continue to DOI

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Alexandra Buylova, Mathias Fridahl, Naghmeh Nasiritousi, Indra Overland, Gunilla Reischl (2022)

Climate Action , Vol.1 Continue to DOI

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Anders Hansson, Jonas Anshelm, Mathias Fridahl, Simon Haikola (2022)

Energy Research & Social Science , Vol.90 Continue to DOI

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Johan Daniel Andersson (2021)

Cosmos and History: The Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy , Vol.17 , s.113-144

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Adrian Lefvert, Emily Rodriguez, Mathias Fridahl, Stefan Grönkvist, Simon Haikola, Anders Hansson (2022)

Energy Research & Social Science , Vol.87 Continue to DOI

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Peter Rogers, Mathias Fridahl, Pius Yanda, Anders Hansson, Noah Pauline, Simon Haikola (2022)

Energies , Vol.15 Continue to DOI

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Rob Bellamy, Oliver Geden, Mathias Fridahl, Emily Cox, James Palmer (2021)

Frontiers in Climate , Vol.3 Continue to DOI

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Johan Daniel Andersson (2021)

Anthropocenes - Human, Inhuman, Posthuman , Vol.2 , s.1-13 Continue to DOI

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Mathias Fridahl, Simon Haikola, Peter Msumali Rogers, Anders Hansson (2021)

Handbook of climate change management: research, leadership, transformation , s.1-30 Continue to DOI

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Alexandra Buylova, Mathias Fridahl, Naghmeh Nasiritousi, Gunilla Reischl (2021)

Frontiers in Climate , Vol.3 Continue to DOI

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Wilfried Rickels, Alexander Proelß, Oliver Geden, Julian Burhenne, Mathias Fridahl (2021)

Frontiers in Climate , Vol.3 Continue to DOI

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Peter Healey, Robert Scholes, Penehuro Lefale, Pius Yanda (2021)

Frontiers in Climate Continue to DOI

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Simon Haikola, Jonas Anshelm, Anders Hansson (2021)

Political Geography , Vol.88 Continue to DOI

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Felix Schenuit, Rebecca Colvin, Mathias Fridahl, Barry McMullin, Andy Reisinger, Daniel L. Sanchez, Stephen M. Smith, Asbjørn Torvanger, Anita Wreford, Oliver Geden (2021)

Frontiers in Climate Continue to DOI

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Katherine Romanak, Mathias Fridahl, Tim Dixon (2021)

Energies , Vol.14 Continue to DOI

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Rob Bellamy, Mathias Fridahl, Javier Lezaun, James Palmer, Emily Rodriguez, Adrian Lefvert, Anders Hansson, Stefan Grönkvist, Simon Haikola (2021)

Environmental Science and Policy , Vol.116 , s.47-55 Continue to DOI

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Mathias Fridahl, Rob Bellamy, Anders Hansson, Simon Haikola (2020)

Frontiers in Climate , Vol.2 , s.1-25 Continue to DOI

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Emily Rodriguez, Adrian Lefvert, Mathias Fridahl, Stefan Grönkvist, Simon Haikola, Anders Hansson (2021)

Journal of Cleaner Production , Vol.280 Continue to DOI

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Anders Hansson, Simon Haikola, Mathias Fridahl, Pius Yanda, Edmund Mabhuye, Noah Pauline (2021)

Environment, Development and Sustainability , Vol.23 , s.5182-5214 Continue to DOI

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Anders Hansson, Mathias Fridahl, Simon Haikola, Yanda Pius, Noah Pauline, Edmund Mabhuye (2020)

Environment, Development and Sustainability , Vol.22 , s.6851-6875 Continue to DOI

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Mathias Fridahl (2019)

Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Storage: Using Natural Resources for Sustainable Development , s.47-62 Continue to DOI

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Simon Haikola, Anders Hansson, Jonas Anshelm (2019)

Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences , Vol.16 , s.45-69 Continue to DOI

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Mathias Fridahl, Mariliis Lehtveer (2018)

Energy Research & Social Science , Vol.42 , s.155-165 Continue to DOI


A popular scientific video on envisioning societal change



Science café

On 1 June, the first activity in Sweden was carried out within the EU project TechEthos. About 20 people had coffee with researchers and talked about future climate technologies at the Technical Museum's evening event Climate Bar in Stockholm.

Workshop Proceeding

Biochar Project in Tanzania-Workshop on Biochar Pilot Studies in Tanzania, 10-11 September 2020.
Host: Center for Climate Change Studies of the University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

Research grants


LUNETs was granted 11 million SEK from Marcus and Amalias Wallenberg Foundation (MAW) and The Swedish Energy Agency's call MESA, including co-financing from LiU, for the projects "Negotiating climate emergency: understandings of temporality in science, public debates, and politics" and "Regrettable Necessity or Fungible Climate Action (ReFLECT)? Bringing Transparency to Interactions Between Science and Society on Solar Geoengineering".


LUNETs researchers Anders Hansson and Mathias Fridahl was granted 11.5 million SEK by the Swedish Energy Agency to participate in the Graduate School in Energy Systems, in collaboration with Chalmers University of Technology. During the fall of 2022, two doctoral positions will be advertised within the project.


LUNETs was granted 7.5 million SEK from Formas in the call “Visions and Conditions for a Fossil-Free Welfare Society 2019” for the project “Opening the portfolio of negative emission technologies: A comprehensive study of social, techno-economic and ethical dimensions of biomass-based NETs in Sweden and Tanzania”.


Anders Hansson in Extrakt, 15/5 2023. (in Swedish)
Tekniken som kan utsätta jorden för ett riskfyllt experiment

LUNETs are highlighted in DN's article series on carbon dioxide capture (in Swedish)
Koldioxidinfångning lyfts som avgörande för klimatet – ingenstans i Sverige finns det

Mathias Fridal participates in Sveriges Radio, Lördagsintervju, 17/9 2022. (in Swedish)
Experter: Så blir nya regeringens politik

Anders Hansson participates in t.teknikfö, 8/12 2021. (in Swedish)
Forskaren: undvik önsketänkande kring koldioxidutsläppen

Mathias Fridal participates in Vetenskapsradion, Klotet, Sveriges Radio, 1/12 2021. (in Swedish)
Jättelika dammsugare ska städa bort koldioxid från atmosfären