Terahertz Materials Analysis Center - THeMAC

The Terahertz Materials Analysis Center (THeMAC) is a central open-access facility at IFM, Linköping University (LiU) built around the only Terahertz (THz) frequency domain ellipsometer and THz optical Hall effect instrument in Europe.

THeMAC is an open and e-access infrastructure where users from academia and industry are trained and serviced. As an integral part of the center, a dedicated data storage and analysis lab that enables users to remotely access data and software, and to perform data analysis is being built. The main goal of THeMAC is to address current and future needs of fundamental and applied research in materials science, physics, chemistry, life sciences, defense, medicine, and ultra-fast communication. The facility is financed by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) research infrastructure grant No. RIF14-055.

What's happening at the center?

Next generation THz ellipsometer growing

We have recently assembled all components of our new THz ellipsometer on its goniometer at the 8T magnet. Still in development, the new setup features an optimized optical design for very long wavelengths (100GHz, millimeterwaves) and we aim to measure full Müller matrices. New technology for source and detector will allow faster detection and enable new modulation schemes for sensitivity enhancement. The new instrument utilizes also 3D-printed components and is entirely based on in-house developed controls. 
The work is supported by the Knut & Alice Wallenberg foundation, the Swedish Center for III-Nitride Technology (C3NiT, Vinnova), and the Swedish Research Council.

THz ellipsometer from a side

Chapter on Phonon Properties published in book Gallium Oxide

In this chapter, written by members of our team we present and discuss the complete set of infrared-active phonon modes in monoclinic-symmetry crystal modification gallium oxide. This chapter attempts to summarise the current state of knowledge about the optical phonon mode propoerties and their coupling with free charge carriers in gallium oxide with monoclinic crystal structure.

You can find the book at springer.com.

The 2nd Swedish Terahertz workshop

The 2nd Swedish Terahertz workshop was held on the 28th of March 2019 at Linköping University. It was organized by the members of the Terahertz Materials Analysis Center (THeMAC).

During the event participants could listen to the presentations given by scientists from Sweden, USA and Italy working in the area of terahertz technologies and materials. In addition, participants had a chance to join the guided tour to the lab facilities of the THeMAC.

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Facilities and resources

The team



V. Stanishev, N. Armakavicius, C. Bouhafs, C. Coletti, P. Kühne, I. G. Ivanov, A. A. Zakharov, R. Yakimova, V. Darakchieva “Critical View on Buffer Layer Formation and Monolayer Graphene Properties in High-Temperature Sublimation” Appl. Sci. 11(4), 1891 (2021). https://doi.org/10.3390/app11041891

N. Armakavicius, P. Kühne, J. Eriksson, C. Bouhafs, V. Stanishev, I. G. Ivanov, R. Yakimova, A. A. Zakharov, A. Al-Temimy, C. Coletti, M. Schubert, V. Darakchieva “Resolving mobility anisotropy in quasi-free-standing epitaxial graphene by terahertz optical Hall effect” Carbon 172, 248-259 (2021).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2020.09.035

M. Schubert, A. Mock, R. Korlacki, S. Knight, B. Monemar, K. Goto, Y. Kumagai, A. Kuramata, Z. Galazka, G. Wagner, M. Tadjer, V. Wheeler, M. Higashiwaki, V. Darakchieva “Phonon Properties: Phonon and Free Charge Carrier Properties in Monoclinic-Symmetry -Ga2O3” Gallium Oxide; Springer International Publishing, 501–534 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-37153-1_28

Shangzhi Chen “Optics of Conducting Polymer Thin Films and Nanostructures” Doctoral Thesis, Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. https://doi.org/10.3384/diss.diva-173352


M. Stokey, A. Mock, R. Korlacki, S. Knight, V. Darakchieva, S. Schöche and M. Schubert “Infrared active phonons in monoclinic lutetium oxyorthosilicate” J. Appl. Phys. 127, 115702 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5135016

R. Korlacki, A. Mock, C. Briley, V. Darakchieva, B. Monemar Y. Kumagai, K. Goto, M. Higashiwaki and M. Schubert Comment on “Characteristics of multi-photon absorption in a β-Ga2O3 single crystal [J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 88, 113701 (2019)]” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 89, 036001 (2020). https://journals.jps.jp/doi/abs/10.7566/JPSJ.89.036001

I. Persson, N. Armakavicius, C. Bouhafs, V, Stanishev, P. Kühne, T. Hofmann, M. Schubert, J. Rosen, R. Yakimova, P.O.Å. Persson, V. Darakchieva “Origin of layer decoupling in ordered multilayer graphene grown by high-temperature sublimation on C-face 4H-SiC“ APL Materials 8, 111104 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5134862

I. Persson, J. Halim, T. W. Hanssen, J. B. Wagner, V. Darakchieva, J. Palisaitis, J. Rosen, and P.O.Å. Persson “How much oxygen can a MXene surface take before it breaks?“
Adv. Funct. Mater. 1909005 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1002/adfm.201909005

S. Chen, E. S. H. Kang, M. S. Chaharsoughi, V. Stanishev, P. Kühne, H. Sun, C. Wang, M. Fahlman, S. Fabiano, V. Darakchieva, and M. P. Jonsson “Conductive polymer nanoantenas for dynamic organic plasmonics” Nature Nanotechnology 15, 35 (2020). https://www.nature.com/articles/s41565-019-0583-y


S. Park, Y. Li, D. B. Fullager, M. Lata, P. Kühne, V. Darakchieva, and T. Hofmann “Terahertz optical properties of polymethacrylates after thermal annealing” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 37, 062924 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1116/1.5122801

M. Schubert, A. Mock, R. Korlacki, S. Knight, Z. Galazka, G. Wagner, V. Wheeler, M. Tadjer, K. Goto, and V. Darakchieva "Longitudinal phonon plasmon mode coupling in β-Ga2O3” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114, 102102 (2019). Editor’s pick. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5089145

M. Schubert, A. Mock, R. Korlacki, and V. Darakchieva “Phonon order and reststrahlen bands of polar vibrations in crystals with monoclinic symmetry” Phys. Rev. B 99, 041201(R) (2019). https://journals.aps.org/prb/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevB.99.041201

A. Mock, R. Korlacki, S. Knight, M. Stokey, A. Fritz, V. Darakchieva and M. Schubert “Lattice dynamics of orthorhombic NdGaO3” Phys. Rev. B 99, 184302 (2019).

I. Persson, J. Halim, H. Lind, T. W. Hansen, J. B. Wagner, L.-Å. Näslund, V. Darakchieva, J. Palisaitis, J. Rosen, P.O.Å. Persson “2D Transition Metal Carbides (MXenes) for Carbon Capture“ Advanced Materials 31, 1805472 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.201805472

J. Halim, I. Persson, E.J. Moon, P. Kühne, V. Darakchieva, P. Persson, P. Eklund, J. Rosen, M. Barsoum “Electronic and Optical Characterization of 2D Ti2C and Nb2C (MXene) Thin Films” Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 31, 165301 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-648x/ab00a2

S. Chen, P. Kühne, V. Stanishev, R. Brooke, I. Petsagkourakis, X. Crispin, M. Schubert, V. Darakchieva, and M. P. Jonsson “On the anomalous optical conductivity dispersion of electrically conducting polymers: ultra-wide spectral range ellipsometry combined with a Drude-Lorentz model“
J. Mat. Chem. C 7, 4350 (2019). Inside Front cover


P. Kühne, N. Armakavicius, V. Stanishev, C. M. Herzinger, M. Schubert, V. Darakchieva, “Advanced Terahertz Frequency-Domain Ellipsometry Instrumentation for In Situ and Ex Situ Applications“ IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, 8, 257, (2018) Invited review

A. Elfwing, C.S. Ponseca Jr., L. Ouyang, A. Urbanowicz, A. Krotkus, D. Tu, R. Forchheimer, and O. Inganäs, "Conducting Helical Structures from Celery Decorated with a Metallic Conjugated Polymer Give Resonances in the Terahertz Range", Advanced Functional Materials 28, 1709565 (2018)


S. Knight, T. Hofmann, C. Bouhafs, N. Armakavicius, P. Kühne, V. Stanishev, I.G. Ivanov, R. Yakimova, S. Wimer, M. Schubert, and V. Darakchieva, “In-situ terahertz optical Hall effect measurements of ambient effects on free charge carrier properties of epitaxial graphene“, Scientific Reports 7, 5151 (2017)

N. Armakavicius, C. Bouhafs, V. Stanishev, P. Kühne, R. Yakimova, S. Knight, T. Hofmann, M. Schubert, and V. Darakchieva, “Cavity-enhanced optical Hall effect in epitaxial graphene detected at terahertz frequencies“, Applied Surface Science 421, 357 (2017)


M. Schubert, P. Kühne, V. Darakchieva and T. Hofmann, “Optical Hall effect - Model description: tutorial“ J. of the Optical Society of America A 33, 1553 (2016) Invited review

N. Armakavicius, J.-T. Chen, S. Knight, T. Hofmann, P. Kühne, D. Nilsson, U. Forsberg, E. Janzen, and V. Darakchieva, “Properties of two-dimensional electron gas in AlGaN/GaN HEMT structures determined by cavity-enhanced THz optical Hall effect“, phys. stat. sol. c 13, 369 (2016)

S. King, S. Schöche, V. Darakchieva, P. Kühne, C. Herzinger, J.-F. Carlin, N. Grandjean, M. Schubert, and T. Hofmann, “Cavity-enhanced optical Hall effect in two-dimensional free charge carrier gases detected at terahertz frequencies“, Opt. Lett. 40, 2688 (2015) Selected for Spotlight on Optics