Electronic Plants

Integrating electronics in plants for biohybrids systems, plant optimization and monitoring

Principal Investigator: Eleni Stavrinidou 

The ePlants group is an interdisciplinary team passionate about plants and technology! Our research is driven both by societal needs and scientific curiosity. We are developing bioelectronic technologies to enable new discoveries in plant science that can lead to more sustainable food production and to plants that can thrive in the changing climate. We are also developing biohybrid technologies and living materials based on plants to achieve new technological concepts that maintain living properties but also to increase the sophistication of our communication with the biological world. Our group is also part of the Wallenberg Wood Science Center (WWSC), Wallenberg Initiative on Materials Science for Sustainable Development (WISE) and is affiliated with the Umeå Plant Science Center. We are always interested in talented people to join the group. Contact Dr. Eleni Stavrinidou for more details. 

Research Activities

Model of research activities at LOE.

Read our review paper on Plant Bioelectronics and Biohybrids. (Illustration by Adam Armada-Moreira)


Plant Bioelectronics

Bioelectronic devices for plant monitoring and optimization- Tools for plant biologists, agriculture and forestry

Deciphering the propagation of the action potential in the carnivorous plant Venus Fly Trap with conformable multielectrode arrays.Deciphering the propagation of the action potential in the carnivorous plant Venus Fly Trap with conformable multielectrode arrays. Photo credit Thor Balkhed We develop bioelectronic devices for plant interface. We design sensors and actuators, based on organic electronic and iontronic materials with the goal to overcome limitations of conventional methods and enable new discoveries We perform biological studies at the eGreenhouse Lab and collaborate with plant scientists from our network. Plant bioelectronics offer unique opportunities including dynamic and on-demand control of plant physiology and signalling as well as monitoring of plant processes in real time and with high spatiotemporal resolution. Plant bioelectronics are compatible with wild type and genetically engineered plants. Focus is given on understanding and enhancing plant responses to environmental stress and increasing plant yield. 

Read our recent publication in Science Advances.
Read our recent publication in PNAS.


Plant biohybrid systems

Leveraging plant structures and functions for technological systems.

Root supercapacitors are charged by an organic photovoltaic and then power an electrochromic display.Root supercapacitors are charged by an organic photovoltaic and then power an electrochromic display. Photo credit Thor Balkhed.

Plants are amazing machines powered by the sun that can self-repair, sense, and adapt to their environment while having hierarchical structures and complex biochemistry. Our research aims to leverage plant processes and structures for technological applications in energy and sensing. We discovered that plants can polymerize conjugated oligomers due to their endogenous enzymatic activity. In this way we can integrated organic mixed ionic electronic conductors directly into the plant structure. We developed biohybrid plants with an electronic root system that can be used to store energy and power low power electrochemical devices. Biohybrid plants pave the way for autonomous systems with potential applications in energy, sensing and robotics.

Read our recent publication in Materials Horizons.


Plant based living materials

Materials with living characteristics and evolving electronic, mechanical and structural properties.

Imagine a fundamentally different technology that changes in dimensions, responds to stimuli, and evolves over time acquiring new functionality. This vision can become reality by merging living components with high performing artificial materials, establishing intimate interaction and communication between the two. We are combining the unique characteristics of photosynthetic cells with functional materials and via additive manufacturing we are developing responsive and evolvable materials. The overall goal is to develop photosynthetic materials that maintain fundamental properties of the living components and set the foundation for the development of a generic hybrid technology.


Plant Bioelectronics: A glimpse in our research.

eGreenhouse Lab

A unique lab facility that allows plant growth in a controlled environment and development, characterization and integration of electronic devices and materials in plants.

Research networks


 WISE- Wallenberg Initiative on Materials Science for Sustainability

Enabling sustainable technologies with positive impact on our society by understanding, creating, and controlling complex materials.

Wallenberg Wood Science Center

WWSC is a joint research center and collaboration between KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Chalmers University of Technology and Linköping University. The base is a donation from Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation. The forest industry is supporting WWSC via the national platform Treesearch.  

Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC) logo.

UPSC- Umeå Plant Science Center 

UPSC is one of the strongest research environments for experimental plant biology in Europe and we conduct research of both basic and strategic importance. Research at UPSC covers a wide range of disciplines in plant biology including ecology, genetics, physiology, biochemistry, cell biology and molecular biology. 


Logo funders LOE

Our research is supported by:


Eleni Stavrinidou.

Researchers receive large funding grants

Under Horizon 2020, the EU’s framework programme for research and innovation, nearly SEK 800 billion was awarded to researchers. At Linköping University, 117 projects received funding – grants that have made several research breakthroughs possible.

Two researchers connect a beaker of water to some wires.

Electronic “soil” enhances crop growth

Barley seedlings grow on average 50% more when their root system is stimulated electrically through a new cultivation substrate.  LiU-researchers have developed an electrically conductive “soil” for hydroponics.

Abdul Manan Dar and Eleni Stavrinidou.

Fast electrical signals mapped in plants with new technology

What happens inside the carnivorous plant Venus Flytrap when it catches an insect? New technology has led to discoveries about the electrical signalling that causes the trap to snap shut.

Eleni Stavrinidou

She combines plants and technology for a sustainable future

Eleni Stavrinidou is principal investigator at Electronic plants at Linköping University’s Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Her vision is to develop technologies that will enable new discoveries in plant biology.

Person holding a small wooden construction infront of face.

The world’s first wood transistor

Researchers at Linköping University and the KTH Royal Institute of Technology have developed the world’s first transistor made of wood. Their study paves the way for further development of wood-based electronics and control of electronic plants.

Eleni Stavrinidou

Eleni Stavrinidou awarded ERC Starting Grant

Incorporating electronic and responsive materials in plant cells in order to produce composites that maintain the living properties of cells and, in the long term, create sustainable systems using nature’s own methods is the focus of her project.



Daniel Cowan-Turner, Bethan A. Morris, Alexandra Sandéhn, Iwona Bernacka Wojcik, Eleni Stavrinidou, Robyn F. Powell, Ilia J. Leitch, Jessica Taylor, Max Walker, Osita Nwokeocha, Maxim V. Kapralov, Anne M. Borland (2024) Sequencing complex plants on a budget: The development of Kalanchoë blossfeldiana as a C3, CAM comparative tool Plants, People, Planet Continue to DOI
Ilaria Abdel Aziz, Johannes Gladisch, Sophie Griggs, Maximilian Moser, Hanne Biesmans, Ana Beloqui, Iain McCulloch, Magnus Berggren, Eleni Stavrinidou (2024) Drug delivery via a 3D electro-swellable conjugated polymer hydrogel Journal of materials chemistry. B Continue to DOI
Ilaria Abdel Aziz, Johannes Gladisch, Chiara Musumeci, Maximilian Moser, Sophie Griggs, Christina J. Kousseff, Magnus Berggren, Iain Mcculloch, Eleni Stavrinidou (2024) Electrochemical modulation of mechanical properties of glycolated polythiophenes Materials Horizons Continue to DOI
Daniela Parker, Abdul Manan Manan Dar, Adam Armada Moreira, Iwona Bernacka Wojcik, Rajat Rai, Daniele Mantione, Eleni Stavrinidou (2024) Biohybrid Energy Storage Circuits Based on Electronically Functionalized Plant Roots ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces Continue to DOI


Yifei Luo, Mohammad Reza Abidian, Jong-Hyun Ahn, Deji Akinwande, Anne M Andrews, Markus Antonietti, Zhenan Bao, Magnus Berggren, Christopher A Berkey, Christopher John Bettinger, Jun Chen, Peng Chen, Wenlong Cheng, Xu Cheng, Seon-Jin Choi, Alex Chortos, Canan Dagdeviren, Reinhold H Dauskardt, Chong-An Di, Michael D Dickey, Xiangfeng Duan, Antonio Facchetti, Zhiyong Fan, Yin Fang, Jianyou Feng, Xue Feng, Huajian Gao, Wei Gao, Xiwen Gong, Chuan Fei Guo, Xiaojun Guo, Martin C Hartel, Zihan He, John S Ho, Youfan Hu, Qiyao Huang, Yu Huang, Fengwei Huo, Muhammad M Hussain, Ali Javey, Unyong Jeong, Chen Jiang, Xingyu Jiang, Jiheong Kang, Daniil Karnaushenko, Ali Khademhosseini, Dae-Hyeong Kim, Il-Doo Kim, Dmitry Kireev, Lingxuan Kong, Chengkuo Lee, Nae-Eung Lee, Pooi See Lee, Tae-Woo Lee, Fengyu Li, Jinxing Li, Cuiyuan Liang, Chwee Teck Lim, Yuanjing Lin, Darren J Lipomi, Jia Liu, Kai Liu, Nan Liu, Ren Liu, Yuxin Liu, Yuxuan Liu, Zhiyuan Liu, Zhuangjian Liu, Xian Jun Loh, Nanshu Lu, Zhisheng Lv, Shlomo Magdassi, George G Malliaras, Naoji Matsuhisa, Arokia Nathan, Simiao Niu, Jieming Pan, Changhyun Pang, Qibing Pei, Huisheng Peng, Dianpeng Qi, Huaying Ren, John A Rogers, Aaron Rowe, Oliver G Schmidt, Tsuyoshi Sekitani, Dae-Gyo Seo, Guozhen Shen, Xing Sheng, Qiongfeng Shi, Takao Someya, Yanlin Song, Eleni Stavrinidou, Meng Su, Xuemei Sun, Kuniharu Takei, Xiao-Ming Tao, Benjamin C K Tee, Aaron Voon-Yew Thean, Tran Quang Trung, Changjin Wan, Huiliang Wang, Joseph Wang, Ming Wang, Sihong Wang, Ting Wang, Zhong Lin Wang, Paul S Weiss, Hanqi Wen, Sheng Xu, Tailin Xu, Hongping Yan, Xuzhou Yan, Hui Yang, Le Yang, Shuaijian Yang, Lan Yin, Cunjiang Yu, Guihua Yu, Jing Yu, Shu-Hong Yu, Xinge Yu, Evgeny Zamburg, Haixia Zhang, Xiangyu Zhang, Xiaosheng Zhang, Xueji Zhang, Yihui Zhang, Yu Zhang, Siyuan Zhao, Xuanhe Zhao, Yuanjin Zheng, Yu-Qing Zheng, Zijian Zheng, Tao Zhou, Bowen Zhu, Ming Zhu, Rong Zhu, Yangzhi Zhu, Yong Zhu, Guijin Zou, Xiaodong Chen (2023) Technology Roadmap for Flexible Sensors ACS Nano, Vol. 17, p. 5211-5295 Continue to DOI

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