Experiments in Behavioral and Neuroeconomics

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We conduct research on intuition, reflection, and emotion in economic decision-making.

The aim of our research is to understand everyday decision-making and its underlying processes, both at the individual level and at societal level. In particular, we investigate the interplay between intuition, reflection, and emotion in economic decision-making. We are interested in questions such as:

  • When and why are individuals willing to forsake personal gain in order to help others?
  • When and why do individuals make risky economic decisions?
  • How do people assign value to payoffs at different points in time?
  • How can the decision-making process be improved so that people make better decisions?

We address these questions using a variety of experimental methods, ranging from behavioral studies in the lab and in the field to more novel methods from behavioral neuroscience, including neuroimaging (fMRI), skin conductance, eye-tracking, and genetic data.


Want to participate in an experiment?

We are always looking for participants for our research. Register in our online subject pool for more information and to sign up for ongoing experiments.


E-mail: jedilab (at) iei.liu.se

Visiting Address:

A Building, entrance 19, level 3
Campus Valla
Linköping University

Postal Address:

Department of Management and Engineering (IEI)
Linköping University
581 83 Linköping

Lab Members



Persson, E., Andersson, D., Back, L., Davidson, T., Johannisson, E., & Tinghög, G. (2018). Discrepancy between health care rationing at the bedside and policy level. Medical Decision Making. https://doi.org/10.1177/0272989X18793637

Verschuere, B., Meijer, E. H., Jim, A., Hoogesteyn, K., Orthey, R., ... Yildiz, E. (2018). Registered replication report on Mazar, Amir, and Ariely (2008). Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science. https://doi.org/10.1177/2515245918781032

McCarthy, R. J., Skowronski, J. J., Verschuere, B., Meijer, E. H., Jim, A. ... Yildiz, E. (2018). Registered replication report on Srull and Wyer (1979). Advances in Methods and Practices in Psychological Science. https://doi.org/10.1177/2515245918777487

Erlandsson, A., Hohle, S. M., Løhre, E., & Västfjäll, D. (2018). The rise and fall of scary numbers: The effect of perceived trends on future estimates, severity ratings and help-allocations in a cancer context. Journal of Applied Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1111/jasp.12552

Martinsson, P. & Persson, E. (2018). Public goods and minimum provision levels: Does the institutional formation affect cooperation? Scandinavian Journal of Economics. doi: 10.1111/sjoe.12321

Erlandsson, A., Nilsson, A., Tinghög, G., & Västfjäll, D. (2018). Bullshit-sensitivity predicts prosocial behaviour. PLoS ONE. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0201474

Persson, E., Asutay, E., Hagman, W., Västfjäll, D., & Tinghög, G. (2018). Affective response predicts risky choice for fast, but not slow, decisions. Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics.

Skagenholt, M., Träff, U., Västfjäll, D., & Skagerlund, K. (2018). Examining the Triple Code Model in numerical cognition: An fMRI study. PLoS ONE. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0199247

Ekerstad, N., Karlson, B., Andersson, D., Husberg, M., Carlsson, P., Heintz, E., Alwin, J. (2018). Short-term resource utilization and cost-effectiveness of comprehensive geriatric assessment in acute hospital care for severely ill frail elderly patients. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association. doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2018.04.003

Gärtner, M. (2018). The prosociality of intuitive decisions depends on the status quo. Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, 74, 127–138. doi: 10.1016/j.socec.2018.04.005

Skagerlund, K., Lind, T., Strömbäck, C., Tinghög, G., & Västfjäll. D. (2018). Financial literacy and the role of numeracy – How individuals’ attitude and affinity with numbers influence financial literacy. Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, 74, 18-25.
doi: 10.1016/j.socec.2018.03.004

Träff, U., Olsson, L., Skagerlund, K., & Östergren, R. (2018). Cognitive mechanisms underlying third graders' arithmetic skills: Expanding the pathways to mathematics model. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 167, 369–387. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2017.11.010

Persson, E. (2018). Testing the impact of frustration and anger when responsibility is low. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization. DOI: 10.1016/j.jebo.2017.12.001

Erlandsson, A., Nilsson, A., & Västfjäll, D. (2018). Attitudes and donation behavior when reading positive and negative charity appeals. Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing. doi: 10.1080/10495142.2018.1452828

O-Donnell, M., Nelson, L. D., Ackermann, E., Aczel, B., Akhtar, A., & Zrubka, M. (2018). Registered replication report: Dijksterhuis & van Knippenberg (1998). Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13, 268-294. doi: 10.1177/1745691618755704


Koppel, L., Andersson, D., Morrison, I., Västfjäll, D., & TInghög, G. (2017). The (null) effect of affective touch on betrayal aversion, altruism, and risk taking. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience. DOI: 10.3389/fnbeh.2017.00251

Eriksson, K., Strimling, P., Andersson, P., Aveyard, M., Brauer, M., Gritskov, V., . . . Yamagishi, T. (2017). Cultural universals and cultural differences in meta-norms about peer punishment. Management and Organization Review, 1-20. DOI: 10.1017/mor.2017.42

Reigstad, A., Stromland, E. A., Tinghög, G. (2017). Extending the cooperative phenotype: Assessing the stability of cooperation across countries. Frontiers in Psychology. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01990

Slovic, P., Gregory, R., Västfjäll, D., & Frank, D. (2017). How can we prevent the collapse of humanitarian values in foreign policy decisions? In R. E. Kasperson (Ed.), Risk conundrums (pp. 260–269). Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Kurz, V., Orland, A., & Posadzy, K. (2017). Fairness versus efficiency: How procedural fairness concerns affect coordination. Experimental Economics. DOI: 10.1007/s10683-017-9540-5 

Asutay, E. & Västfjäll, D. (2017). Exposure to arousal-inducing sounds facilitates visual search. Scientific Reports, 7. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-09975-8

Träff, U., Skagerlund, K., Olsson, L., & Östergren, R. (2017). Pathways to arithmetic fact retrieval and percentage calculation in adolescents. British Journal of Educational Psychology. DOI: 10.1111/bjep.12170

Eriksson, K., Andersson, P. A., & Strimling, P. (2017). When is it appropriate to reprimand a norm violation? The roles of anger, behavioral consequences, violation severity, and social distance. Judgment and Decision Making, 12, 396-407.

Gärtner, M., Mollerstrom, J., & Seim, D. (2017). Individual risk preferences and the demand for redistribution. Journal of Public Economics. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpubeco.2017.06.009

Strömbäck, C., Lind, T., Skagerlund, K., Västfjäll, D., & Tinghög, G. (2017). Does self-control predict financial behavior and financial well-being? Journal of Behavioural and Experimental Finance. DOI: 10.1016/j.jbef.2017.04.002

Västfjäll, D., Erlandsson, A., Slovic, P., & Tinghög, G. (2017). Commentary: Empathy and its discontents. Frontiers in Psychology. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00542

Tinghög, G., Andersson, D., & Västfjäll, D. (2017). Are individuals luck egalitarians? An experiment on the influence of brute and option luck on social preferences. Frontiers in Psychology. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00460

Bouwmeester, S., Verkoeijen, P. P. J. L., Aczel, B., Barbosa, F., Bègue, L., Brañas-Garza, P., Wollbrant, C. E. (2017). Registered replication report: Rand, Greene, and Nowak (2012). Perspectives on Psychological Science. DOI: 10.1177/1745691617693624

Gärtner, M. & Sandberg, A. (2017). Is there an omission effect in prosocial behavior? A laboratory experiment on passive vs. active generosity. PLoS ONE, 12(3), e0172496. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172496

Saarikallio, S., Baltazar, M., & Västfjäll, D. (2017). Adolescents' musical relaxation: Understanding related affective processig. Nordic Journal of Music Therapy. DOI: 10.1080/08098131.2016.1276097

Meunier, A., Posadzy, K., Tinghög, G., & Aspenberg, P. (2017). Risk preferences and attitudes in surgical decision-making. A survey of Swedish orthopaedic surgeons. Acta Orthopaedica. DOI: 10.1080/17453674.2017.1298353

Koppel, L., Andersson, D., Morrison, I., Posadzy, K., Västfjäll, D., & Tinghög, G. (2017). The effect of acute pain on risky and intertemporal choice. Experimental Economics. DOI: 10.1007/s10683-017-9515-6

Kirchler, M., Andersson, D., Bonn, C., Johannesson, M., Sørensen, E., Stefan, M., Tinghög, G., & Västfjäll, D. (2017). The effect of fast and slow decisions on risk taking. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty. DOI: 10.1007/s11166-017-9252-4

Wiss, J., Levin, L.-Å., Andersson, D., & Tinghög, G. (2017). Prioritizing rare diseases: Psychological effects influencing medical
decision making. Medical Decision Making. DOI: 10.1177/0272989X17691744 

Erlandsson, A., Björklund, F., & Bäckström, M. (2017). Choice-justifications after allocating resources in helping dilemmas. Judgment and Decision Making, 12, 60–80.


Slovic, P., Västfjäll, D., Erlandsson, A., & Gregory, R. (2016). Iconic photographs and the ebb and flow of empathic response to humanitarian disasters. PNAS, 114, 640–644. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1613977114

Bjälkebring, P., Västfjäll, D., Dickert, S., & Slovic, P. (2016). Response: Commentary: Greater emotional gain from giving in older adults: Age-related positivity bias in charitable giving. Frontiers in Psychology, 7: 1887. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01887

Träff, U., Olsson, L., Östergren, R., & Skagerlund, K. (2016). Heterogeneity of developmental dyscalculia: Cases with different deficit profiles. Frontiers in Psychology, 7:2000, 1–15. DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.02000

Kurz, V., Orland, A., & Posadzy, K. (working paper). Fairness versus efficiency: How procedural fairness concerns affect coordination. LiU Working Papers in Economics. http://swopec.hhs.se/liuewp/abs/liuewp0003.htm

Asutay, E. & Västfjäll, D. (2016). Auditory attentional selection is biased by reward cues. Scientific Reports. DOI: 10.1038/srep36989

Bergman, P., Västfjäll, D., Tajadura-Jiménez, A., & Asutay, E. (2016). Auditory-induced emotion mediates perceptual categorization of everyday sounds. Frontiers in Psychology, 7 (1565). DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01565 

Tinghög, G., Andersson, D., Bonn, C., Johannesson, M., Kirchler, M., Koppel, L., & Västfjäll, D. (2016). Intuition and moral decision-making – the effect of time pressure and cognitive load on moral judgment and altruistic behavior. PLOS ONE.

Skagerlund, K., Karlsson, T., & Träff, U. (2016). Magnitude processing in the brain: An fMRI study of time, space, and numberosity as a shared cortical system. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10. DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2016.00500

Erlandsson, A., Jungstrand, A., & Västfjäll, D. (2016). Anticipated guilt for not helping and anticipated warm glow for helping are differently impacted by personal responsibility to help. Frontiers in Psychology, 7(1475). Doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.01475

Eriksson, K., Strimling, P., Andersson, P. A., & Lindholm, T. (2016). Costly punishment in the ultimatum game evokes moral concern, in particular when framed as payoff reduction. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. Doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2016.09.004

Nilsson, A., Erlandsson, A., & Västfjäll, D. (2016). The congruency between moral Foundations and intentions to donate, self-reported donations, and actual donations to charity. Journal of Research in Personality. Doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2016.07.001

Erlandsson, A., Västfjäll, D., Sundfelt, O., & Slovic, P. (2016). Argument-inconsistency in charity appeals: Statistical information about the scope of the problem decrease helping toward a single identified victim but not helping toward many non-identified victims in a refugee crisis context. Journal of Economic Psychology. Doi: 10.1016/j.joep.2016.06.007

Bjälkebring, P., Västfjäll, D., Dickert, S., & Slovic, P. (2016). Greater emotional gain from giving in older adults: Age-related positivity bias in charitable giving. Frontiers in Psychology, 7. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00846

Bjälkebring, P., Västfjäll, D., Svenson, O., & Slovic, P. (2016). Regulation of experienced and anticipated regret in daily decision making. Emotion, 16, 381–386. Doi: 10.1037/a0039861

Erlandsson, A. (2016). The when and why of helping: Individual and organizational decision making from a psychological perspective. EBA Development Dissertation Brief, 2, 1-23. http://eba.se/the-when-and-why-of-helping-individual-and-organizational-decision-making-from-a-psykological-perspective/.

Hagger, M. S., Chatzisarantis, N. L. D., Alberts, H., Angonno, C. O., Batailler, C., Birt, A., . . . Zwienenberg, M. (2016). A multi-lab pre-registered replication of the ego-depletion effect. Perspectives on Psychological Science. Advance online publication with supplemental materials 

Västfjall, D., Slovic, P., Burns, W., Erlandsson, A., Koppel, L., Asutay, E., & Tinghög, G. (2016). The arithmetic of emotion: Integration of incidental and integral affect in judgments and decisions. [Review]. Frontiers in Psychology, 7. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00325

Tinghög, G. & Andersson, D. (working paper). Are Individuals Luck Egalitarians? An experiment on the influence of brute and option luck on social preferences. LiU Working Papers in Economics. http://swopec.hhs.se/liuewp/abs/liuewp0001.htm 

Dickert, S., Kleber, J., Västfjäll, D., & Slovic, P. (2016). Mental imagery, impact, and affect: A mediation model for charitable giving. PLoS ONE, 11, e0148274. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0148274

Slovic, P., Västfjäll, D., Gregory, R., & Olson, K. G. (2016). Valuing lives you might save: Understanding psychic numbing in the face of genocide. In C. H. Anderton & J. Brauer (Eds.), Economic aspects of genocides, other mass atrocities, and their prevention (pp. 613–638). New York: Oxford University Press.

Helsing, M., Västfjäll, D., Bjälkebring, P.,  Juslin, P.N., & Hartig, T. (2016). An experimental field study of the effects of listening to self-selected music on emotions, stress, and cortisol Levels. Music & Medicine, 8, 4.


Nilsson, A., & Erlandsson, A. (2015). The moral Foundations taxonomy: Structural validity and relation to political ideology in Sweden. Personality and Individual Differences, 76(0), 28–32. Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2014.11.049

Wiss, J., Slovic, P., Västfjäll D., & Tinghög, G. (2015). The influence of identifiability and singularity in moral decision making. Judgment and Decision Making, 10 (5), 492–502.

Erlandsson, A., Björklund, F., & Bäckström, M. (2015). Emotional reactions, perceived impact and perceived responsibility mediate the identifiable victim effect, proportion dominance effect and in-group effect respectively. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 127(0), 1-14. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2014.11.003

Tinghög, G. (2015). Health care priority setting in practice: Seven unresolved problems. In E. Nagel (ed.) Legitimization and framework of decisions on prioritization in medicine. Springer.

Kogut, T., Slovic, P., & Västfjäll, D. (2015). Scope insensitivity in helping decisions: Is it a matter of Culture and values? Journal of Experimental Psychology General.

Bjälkebring, P, Västfjäll, D., & Johansson, B. (2015). Happiness and arousal: Framing happiness as arousing results in lower happiness ratings for older adults. Frontiers in  Psychology: Emotion Science.

Baberini, M., Coleman, C.-L., Slovic, P., & Västfjäll, D. (2015). Examining the effects of photographic attributes on sympathy, emotions, and donation behavior. Visual Communication Quarterly, 22.

Kogut, T., Slovic, P., & Västfjäll, D. (2015). The effect of recpient identifiability and neediness on children's sharing behavior. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 29, 353–362. 

Asutay, E. & Västfjäll, D. (2015). Attentional and emotional prioritization of the sounds occurring outside the visual field. Emotion, 15, 281-286.

Asutay. E. & Västfjäll. D. (2015). Negative emotion provides cues for orienting auditory spatial attention. Frontiers in  Psychology: Auditory Cognitive Neuroscience.

Hagman, W., Andersson, D., Västfjäll, D., & Tinghög, G. (2015). Public views on policies involving nudges. Review of Philosophy and Psychology.

Västfjäll, D., Slovic, P., & Mayorga, M. (2015). Pseudoinefficacy: Negative feelings from children who cannot be helped reduce warm glow for children who can be helped. Frontiers of Psychology.

Västfjäll, D., Slovic, P., & Mayorga, M. (2015). Pseudoinefficacy and the arithmetic of compassion. In S. Slovic & P. Slovic (Eds.), Numbers and nerves: Information, emotion, and meaning in a world of data (pp. 42–52). Corvallis, OR: Oregon State University Press.

Slovic, P., & Västfjäll, D. (2015). The more who die, the less we care: Psychic numbing and genocide. In S. Kaul & D. Kim (Eds.), Imagining human rights (pp. 55–68). Berlin: De Gruyter.

Dickert, S., Västfjäll, D., Kleber, J., & Slovic, P. (2015). Scope insensitivity: The limits of intuitive valuation of human lives in public policy. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 4, 248-255. doi: 10.1016/j.jarmac.2014.09.002


Västfjäll, D., Slovic, P., Mayorga, M., & Peters, E. (2014). Compassion fade: Affect and Charity are greatest for a single Child in need. PLoS ONE, 9(6).

Tinghög, G., Andersson, D., Tinghög, P., & Lyttkens, C. H. (2014). Horizontal inequality when rationing by waiting lists. International Journal of Health Services, 44, 169-184.

Dickert, S., Västfjäll, D., & Slovic, P. (2014). Neural economics and dual information processing underlying charitable giving. In E. A. Wilhelms & V. F. Reyna (Eds.), Neuroeconomics, Judgment, and Decision Making. Psychology Press.

Dickert, S., Västfjäll, D., Mauro, R., & Slovic, P. (2014). The feeling of risk: Implications for risk perception and Communication. In H. Cho, T. Reimer, & K. McComas (Eds.), The Sage Handbook of Risk Communication. SAGE Publications.

Erlandsson, A., Björklund, F., & Bäckström, M. (2014). Perceived utility (not sympathy) mediates the proportion dominance effect in helping decisions. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 27(1), 37-47. doi: 10.1002/bdm.1789

Asutay, E. & Västfjäll, D. (2014). Emotional bias in change deafness in multisource auditory environments. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143, 27-32.

Västfjäll, D., Peters, E., & Slovic, P. (2014). The affect heuristic, mortality salience, and risk: Domain-specific effects of a natural disaster on risk-benefit perception. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 55, 527–532. doi: 10.1111/sjop.12166


Tinghög, G., Andersson, D., Bonn, C., Böttiger, H., Josephson, C., Lundgren, G., Västfjäll, D., Kirchler, M., & Johannesson, M. (2013). Intuition and cooperation reconsidered. NATURE 498:E1-E1, doi:10.1038/nature12193.

Genevsky, A., Västfjäll, D., Slovic, P., & Knutson, B. (2013). The evaluable victim effect: Neural underpinnings of charitable behavior. The Journal of Neuroscience, 33, 17188-17196.

Carpenter, S., Peters, E., Västfjäll, D., & Isen, A. (2013). Positive feelings facilitate working memory and complex decision making among older adults. Cognition and Emotion, 27, 184-192.

Omar, F., Tinghög, G., Carlsson, P., Omnell-Persson, M., & Welin, S. (2013). Priority setting in kidney transplantation. Scandinavial Journal of Public Health, 41, 206-215.

Bjälkebring, P., Västfjäll, D., & Johansson, B. (2013). Regulation of experienced and anticipated regret for daily decisions in younger and older adults in a Swedish one-week diary study. GeroPsych, 26(4), 233-241.

Markowitz, E. M., Slovic, P., Västfjäll, D., & Hodges, S. (2013). Compassion fade and the challenge of environmental conservation. Judgment and Decision Making, 8, 397–406.

Västfjäll, D., & Slovic, P. (2013). Cognition and emotion in judgment and decision making. In M. D. Robinson, E. R. Watkins, & E. Harmon-Jones (Eds.), Handbook of cognition and emotion (pp. 252–271). New York: Guilford Press.


Dickert, S., Västfjäll, D., Kleber, J., & Slovic, P. (2012). Valuation of human lives: Normative expectations and psychological mechanisms of (ir)rationality. Synthese, 189, 95-105.

Tinghög, G. (2012). Discounting preferences and paternalism in cost-effectiveness analysis. Health Care Analysis, 2, 297-318.

Tinghög, G. & Carlsson, P. (2012). Individual responsibility for Health care financing. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 40, 784-794.

Mooney, G., Tinghög, G., & Kalkan, A. (2012). The need for a new paradigm in health economics--the case of Scandinavia. Nordic Journal of Health Economics, 1, 119-133.

Pettersson, B., Hoffmann, M., Andersson, D., Wändell, P., & Levin, L.-Å. (2012). Utilization and COSTs of glucose lowering therapies following health technology assessment for the new reimbursement scheme in Sweden. Health Policy, 108, 207-215.

Carstensen, J., Andersson, D., André, M., Engström, S., Magnusson, H., & Borgquist, L. (2012). How does comorbidity influence Healthcare Costs? A population-based cross-sectional study of depression, back pain and osteoarthritis. BMJ Open, 2.

Funding Agencies